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La Guerra Sucia en Argentina
Transcript of La Guerra Sucia en Argentina
La Guerra Sucia en Argentina
After 1943 Military Coup --> Juan Peron becomes President
Peron advocated a nationalist party and a "third way" alternative to both communism and capitalism
Juan Peron was deposed and exiled to Spain as a cause of the Revolucion Libertadora
Peron remained in exile for 20 years during which time Argentina was plagued with constant guerrilla conflict of the Peronist movement
Peron returned to Argentina in 1973 when the right-wing Peronist movement became dominant
Peron was re-elected President in 1973, but died in 1974
His 2nd wife, Isabel Peron, was his successor
She was a weak President
During this time there were many outbreaks of political violence from Left-wing revolutionary Peronists
Isabel Peron was overthrown by her own military in a coup
The military junta was lead by Jorge Rafael Videla
The junta closed the National Congress, imposed censorship, banned trade unions, and brought state and municipal government under military control.
Videla initiated a campaign against suspected dissidents. Throughout the country the regime set up hundreds of clandestine detention camps, where thousands of people were jailed and persecuted
1982: The Falklands War
Argentina claimed the Falkland Islands since the early 19th century
Britain seized the Islands in 1833
Argentina gave up long term negotiations with Britain to go to war with Britain to take the islands back as a way to unite Argentines together as the military dictatorship was under heavy criticism for its economic downfall and human rights violations
It was a huge military fail and Argentina’s military government was severely discredited by its failure to prepare and support its own military forces in the invasion
Civilian rule was restored to Argentina in 1983
1983 - 1986
Democracy was restored to Argentina when Raúl Alfonsín of the Radical Civic Union, a major centre-left political party, won the presidential election of 1983.
Repealed a law that granted amnesty to those accused of crimes and human rights violations during the Dirty War, and hundreds of military personnel were prosecuted.
However, under increased pressure from the military, in 1986 Alfonsin granted amnesty to hundreds of military officers below the rank of colonel who were determined to have been following orders (with the exceptions of rape and abduction of children)
"Silencio es Salud"
Human Rights Violations:
approx 8,000 documented
estimated over 30,000 actual
In 1990 military junta leader Jorge Rafael Videla was pardoned but in 1998 his pardon was revoked and he was put on house arrest when convicted of kidnapping babies and giving them to childless military couples. In 2008 he was sentenced to 50 years in prison when his house arrest status was revoked.
In 2005 Argentina’s Supreme Court voted to repeal the amnesty laws passed by Alfonsín. Afterward hundreds of military officers were tried, and several were convicted. However, Violia and Galteria (2 of the 3 leaders of the military junta) had already died.
As recent as 2012, military officials were still being charged with systematic abduction of babies born to political prisoners.
La Historia Oficial (1985)
The film is set in Argentina in the 1980s, in the last years of the country's last military dictatorship. Alicia, a teacher, and Roberto, a government agent, live in Buenos Aires with their adopted daughter, Gaby. Alicia comes to realize that her adopted daughter may be the child of a desaparecido, a victim of the forced disappearances that occurred during Argentina's last military dictatorship (1976-1983), which was marred by widespread human rights violations and a genocide,
Oscar: Best Foreign Film 1985