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Methods and approaches in language teaching

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Wilka Soares

on 23 August 2017

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Transcript of Methods and approaches in language teaching

Universidade Potiguar
Letras língua inglesa

Methods and approaches in language teaching
“When teachers are exposed to methods and asked to reflect on their principles and actively engage with their techniques, they can become clearer about why they do what they do. They become aware of their own fundamental assumptions, values and beliefs”
Why approaches and methods?
Grammar translation
Popular methods
Methods and approaches in language teaching
Prof. Me. Wilka Soares
Think about...
1. The teacher's goals
2. The teacher's role
3. The learner's role
4. The main characteristics of the teaching and learning processes
5. The nature of the teacher-student interaction
6. The consideration of learner's feelings
7. The role of language and the role of culture
8. The role of the L1
9. Assessment
10. The treatment of learner error
Approach - Method - Technique
Anthony (1963)
a view, theory
a way of doing something
technical/ mechanical skills
techniques carry out a method which is consistent with an approach
Direct method
Community language learning
The Silent Way
Total Physical Response
Task Based
Communicative language learning
Multiple Inteligences
Natural approach
Lexical approach
Richards & Rogers (2001)
First half of the 19th century
Aim: to help students appreciate L2 literature
Teacher: authority
Reading and writing emphasized over other habilities
L1 & L2 similarities emphasized
Explicit and conscious knowledge of grammar
Written language is superior to spoken language
L2 culture was literature and fine arts
Translation from L2 to L1 and viceversa: a central goal
1) Translation of a Literary Passage
2) Reading Comprehension Questions
3) Antonyms/Synonyms
4) Cognates
5) Deductive Application of Rule
6) Fill-in-the-blanks
7) Memorization
8) Use Words in Sentences
9) Composition
Direct Method
Based on the principles of child language acquisition
NO L1 use + direct connection between L2 and meaning
Focus on oral language
Fluency over accuracy
Culture includes more than fine arts
Grammar: induction over deduction
Demonstration rather than explanation or translation

1)reading aloud
2)question answer exercise
3)self correction
4)conversation practice,
5)fill-in-the-blank exercise,
7)paragraph writing
developed in the USA during the WW2
teacher = model
imediate correction of errors
positive reinforcement
drilling and mechanical repetition
habit formation
grammar: induced from examples
rooted in psychology (Behaviorism) and linguistics (Structuralism)
1) dialogue memorization
2)repetition drill
3)backward build-up drill
4)chain drill
5)Substitution Drills
6)Transformation Drills
Birth of the field of Second Language Learning and Teaching
"Innovative" flair
Reaction to Behaviorism and Structuralism
Approach: cognitive code: Chomsky
1. Suggestopedia
2. Silent Way
3. TPR
4Communicative Language Learning
Communicative Language Teaching
Communication includes functions (arguing, persuading, rejecting, inviting)
Social context, real context, authentic language
Situations that promote communication
Cooperation and teamwork
Teacher = facilitator, manager of classrom activities
Teacher starts and students interacts
Errors = natural outcome of development
1) games
2) role play
3) information gap
Affective-humanistic approach
Teacher = help students overcome psychological barriers to learning
Class atmosphere (decoration, music to make students feel comfortable and confident
drama and emotions (use of different tones) to give meaning to the liguistic material or to emphasize structure
1) dramatizing the reading of dialogues
2)creative adaptation
3)peripheral learning
4)choose a new identity
5)role play
6)listening to classical music
Silent Way
Caleb Gattegno
learners actively responsible for their own learning
learning > teaching: we initiate by ourselves by mobilizing inner resources
teacher's silence
1)peer correction
2)self-correction gestures
3) word chart
4)fidel charts
Total Physical Response (TPR)
at first, learning through meaninful exposure to L2
teaches language through physical activity
reduces learner's stress
learners primary role is listener and performer
action sequence
role reversal
Task based
syllabus based on student's communicative needs
previous knowledge = the basis
learners work with meaninful, cognitively demanding and authentic tasks
self evaluation encouraged
Collaborative learning
Multiple Intelligences
learning should be taught as well as language
attention given to students multiple intelligences
variety of activities
Best method? (PRABHU, 1990)
What principles and techniques would you use in your classes? Why?
ANTHONY, E.M. Approach, Method and Technique. English Language Teaching, vol.17, 1963.

LARSEN-FREEMAN, D. Teaching Techniques in English as a Second Language.
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.

PRABHU, N.P. There is no Best Method – Why?, TESOL Quarterly, vol. 24/2, 1990.

RICHARDS, J., RODGERS, T. Approaches and methods in language Teaching (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.

What a teacher should have in mind while choosing their own method?
What is a good English teacher?
Has technical knowledge: understands linguistics, principles of language learning and teaching, language proficiency, understands the relationship of language and culture, knowledge of the latest development of language teaching and learning.
Has pedagogical skills: teaching techniques, hability in lesson plan and design and other classroom behavior management skills.
Has interpersonal skills.
Personal qualities.
According to Brown (2001),

Richards & Rodgers (1999)
(approach + method)
Widdowson (1979), and many others;
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