Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

Blood Quantum and Tribal Enrollment

SFIS Semior Honors Symposium
by

Nicolette Garcia

on 13 May 2014

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Blood Quantum and Tribal Enrollment

Key Terms
Concerns About Enrollment
" I'm concerned about tribes that use an enrollment criterion that requires our people to have a certain amount of blood degree in order to be considered a tribal member"
-Yellow Bird, 180
1980 Census show that native americans have the highest out-marriage rates of all races in the United States.
Huge number of our people have and keep on marrying others outside our tribes and race.
Majority of our people will have less than one-quarter blood, the magic number that many tribes use as a standard for tribal enrollment and identity.
Tribal blood of each generation will get thinner and thinner.
FQ#2
"When i tried to enroll my daughter into the pueblo of Santo Domingo it was a hard process, because in order to enroll her i needed to get a signature from her father."
-Rosetta, Faith. Personal Interview
United Nations Declarations on the Rights of Indigenous People
Article 33:
Indigenous people have the right to determine their own identity or membership in accordance with their customs and traditions. This does not impair the right of indigenous individuals to obtain citizenship of the states in which they live.
Indigenous people have the right to determine the structures and to select the membership of their institutions in accordance with their own procedures.
Identity
" The arrival of Europeans brought changes to group identity" (Schmidt, 2)

European arrival shifted identity from social cultural territorial based definitions to legal and frequently race-based definitions.
Europeans often thought identity was based upon appearance.
Blood Quantum
Tribal Enrollment
Identity
Allotment Era (1887-1934)
"The Allotment Era (1887-1934) saw the concept of blood quantum become officially integrated into the legal status of indian identity for the purposes of dividing communal tribal lands into individual parcels called allotments." (Shmidt, 5)

first official use of blood quantum.
used to determine which individual got a piece of land.
had to meet a requirement for benefits.
breaks up Native communities.
Martinez vs. Santa Clara Pueblo
Julia Martinez , member of Santa Clara Pueblo.
children lived within the pueblo, culturally engaged.
children were ineligible for membership because the father was Navajo.
lacked rights to political participation, land and other benefits granted to tribal members.
Court cases on Blood Quantum
-Yellow Bird, "Decolonizing Tribal Enrollment"
- Tsosie, Rebecca "Tribal Membership and Indian Status"
Enforcements of Blood Quantum
"Blood Quantum is officially understood as a numerical percentage given to one's mix of indian and non-indian ancestry, but at the time of allotment, federal agents were often merely guessing at these percentages based on criteria of phenotype and other anthropomorphic measurements of race." - Dennison, "The Logic Of Recognition"
Concerns About Enrollment
"Required blood-quantum enrollment system can be distressingly exclusive because they do not allow individuals who may have a "large" degree of Native blood to become enrolled members or a tribe." -Yellow Bird, "Decolonizing Tribal Enrollment, 183
Blood-quantum can kick people out of communities.
Disenrollment is another issue for many tribes.
http://firstpeoples.tumblr.com/page/2
"American Indians and Alaskan Natives are the only racial groups that have to prove their identity. No other races or ethnicity in the United States are required to provide policies or definitions on identity." - Begay, Yolynda "Historic and Demographic Changes that Impact the Future of the Dine and the Development of Community-Based Policy"
Enforcements of Identity
Imposed by U.S. government by racial policy.
Based on data and methodology.
Analysis of total population dynamics.
Fractionation of people and subsequent generations.
Designed for cultural extinction.
-"Historic and Demographic Changes that Impact the Future of the Dine and the Development of Community-Based Policy"
Blood Quantum and Tribal Enrollment
Nicolette Garcia
Santo Domingo/Jemez Pueblo
SFIS Senior Honors Project
Spring Symposium
May 6, 2014

Focus Questions
How was Blood Quantum established, and how has it been enforced in Native communities?
How is the Blood Quantum system affecting Native American Communities' tribal enrollment, cultural participation, and rights?
Should the tribes continue using Blood Quantum to determine membership?
How was Blood Quantum established, and how was it enforced in Native communities?
Tribal Enrollment and the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934
After the "Allotment Era" blood quantum was used as a determinant of tribal affiliation.
Federally recognized tribes require a certain level of blood quantum.
Howard-Wheeler Act encouraged tribes to form their own governments.
Treaty Period
(1817-1871)
Treaties used to negotiate ceding tribal lands.
Treaties used to grant various benefits such as money and land.
Blood Quantum used to define certain treaty rights to specific individuals.
Ryan W. Schmidt, "American Indian Identity and Blood Quantum in the 21st Century: A Critical Review", 2011
Blood Quantum usage in the Present
Blood Quantum was continuously used to determine membership in Native American Tribes.
Federally recognized tribes receive a Certificate Degree of Indian Blood (CDIB) by the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
Each tribe has its own blood quantum requirements.
based upon appearance
Provides information to give individuals government services such as commodities, etc.
Works Cited
Begay, Yolynda "Historic and Demographic Changes that Impact the
Future of the Dine and the Development of Community-Based Policy."
Dine Perspectives Revitalizing and Reclaiming Navajo Thought
Llyod L. Lee. Arizona: The University of Arizona Press, 2014. 105-106. Print
Dennison, Jean. "The Logic of Recognition."
American Indian Quarterly
38.1 (2014): 1, 35, 132. ProQuest. Web. 7 Feb. 2014
LaVelle, John P. "The General Allotment Act "Eligibility" Hoax:
Distortions of Law, Policy, and History in Derogation of Indian Tribes."
Wicazo Sa Review
Spring (1999): 251-302. Web. 25 Feb. 2014
Pecos, Matt. Personal Interview. February 2014.
Rosetta, Faith. Personal Interview. April 29, 2014.
Schmidt, Ryan W. "American Indian Identity and Blood Quantum in the
21st Century: A Critical Review"
Journal of Anthropology
(2011): 1-9. Print.
Tsosie, Rebecca. "Tribal Membership and Indian Status."
Native
Americas
Spring/Summer 2001: 19, 23. Print.
Yellow Bird, Micheal. "Decolonizing Tribal Enrollment."
For Indigenous
Eyes Only
Waziyatawin Angela Wilson and Micheal Yellow Bird. Santa Fe, NM: School od American Research, 2005. 179-185. Print.
Conclusion
In order to use the blood quantum for future generations we must do the following:
institute an arranged marriage system.
ensure that our children and grandchildren have kids within the same race or tribe.
adoption citizenship criteria determined by the contribution to the community, committed, and is willing to keep language and traditions going.
Personal Solutions
Base enrollment on commitment to the community and participation.
Willing to maintain their life with the teaching of our ancestor ways and pass it on.
Cochiti Pueblo
"When a Cochiti male marries an outsider the woman and children, if any are all enrolled into the community as a full member."
-Pecos, Matt. Personal Interview. 2014
Solutions
- Yellow Bird, "Decolonizing Tribal Enrollment"
Thank You
A special thank you to the following people:
My Mentor, Faith Rosetta
Ms.Guerin, SHP instructor
Matt Pecos, Interview
Ken Kambeitz
Father was from another tribe.
Weren't married nor together, father refused to sign papers.
One of the requirements by Santo Domingo for enrollment.
Cochiti is using there sovereignty and practicing that by creating there own set of polices.
Wife and children are allowed to participate, learn the language, culture, and traditions.
Focus Questions
How was blood quantum established, and how has it been enforced in Native communities?
How is the Blood Quantum system affecting Native American Communities' tribal enrollment, cultural participation, and rights?
Should the tribes continue using Blood Quantum to determine membership?
BIA
CDIB
Full transcript