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Executive Functions and Frontal Lobes

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Amanda Lin

on 22 December 2015

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Transcript of Executive Functions and Frontal Lobes

Component Analysis of the Prefrontal Cortex
Planning and Selecting an Action
Applications of fMRI: traditional executive function tasks
functional magnetic resonance imaging
(fMRI)
Technology
Inflammation - Microvasular
Tissue Damage
Glycation – Structural Tissue Damage
Oxidation – Cellular DNA Damage
Cholesterol Particles
Plaque
Cancer “Screening”
Discovering Breast Cancer Earlier
Colorectal Cancer
MRI Cancer Screening
Breast Cancer Detection
Diabetes Risk
Nutrient Deficiencies
Stress Effects on Cortisol
Growth Hormone
Determinants of
Genetic Expression
Your annual check-up – 1980’s +
The phone - 1980’s +
What’s changed?
Almost nothing!
What’s changed?
Everything!
Cut-section of Artery
Tear in artery wall
Cholesterol deposits
Red blood cell
Macrophage foam cell
Macrophage cell
Fat deposits
Young compared to older skin cells
Normal Cell
Cell Attacked by
Free Radicals
Cell with Oxidative
Stress
Normal
Suspicious
VLDL
VLDL
Lp(a)
VLDL
Remnants
Diameter, nm
HDL3
HDL2
LDL
IDL
VLDL
1000
80
60
40
20
10
5
0.95
1.006
1.02
1.06
1.10
1.20
Density, g/mL
Triglycerides
Chylomicron
Secondary Markers
Prostate (PSA)
Ovary (CA 125)
Breast (CA 15-3)
Colon (CEA)

Liver & Testicular (AFP)
Pancreatic (CA 19-9)
Lung (NSE)
Primary Markers
Growth Factors (VEGF)
Inflammatory Factors (IL-6, MMP-2 & 6)
Cancer
Risk
Hormones
Imaging
Biochemistry
Genetics
Nutrients
Cologic Test
Breast
Prostate
Cancer
Risk
Hormones
Imaging
Genetics
Nutrients
Biochemistry
MRI breast
Digital mammography
Traditional mammography
More than 10
Less than 40
More than 0.070
More than 7.0
FBS
HgbA1C
Insulin
Adiponectin
Leptin
Resistin
“Appetite control” hormone
“Appetite control” hormone
Blood sugar control hormone
Indicator of fat function
Sugar level in your blood
"Sugar-coating" on red blood cells
5.9
0.058
50
1.4
6.3
0.061
Less than 6.0
Less than 0.059
Less than 6
Less than 2.5
More than 60
Less than 4
More than 25
More than 5.0
Food Antibodies – Symptoms
and Illness
‘abnormal DNA’ -Mutations
Physical traits
Disease risk
Drug response
‘normal DNA’ - SNPs
Single Gene
Multiple Genes
Inherited
Modified
The Lateral Prefrontal Cortex
Our Leading
Edge Science
CT angiogram
$1000

Breast or Prostate MRI
$1500

Fitness Assessment
$150 - $600
Highlights:
Two - 1.5 hours strategy sessions
MD-Naturopath team review
Follow-up care for 3 months
Concierge care
Core testing:
targeted risk markers - cardiovascular, diabetes, cancer
full hormone profiling
critical nutrient markers
annual diagnostic imaging
Foundation program
Foundation Program $4000
Nutrient and toxicity profile
$600 -$1500

Food Antibodies
-96 foods for IgG, E, A.
$450-700

Genetics
Telomere Length - $400
Disease panel - $1200
Pharmacogenetics - $1500

Imaging
CT angiogram -$1000
Breast or Prostate MRI - $1500
Additional Diagnostics
Nutrient Deficiencies
Customizing Your Program
Highlights:
Two - 1.5 hours strategy sessions
MD-Naturopath team review
Follow-up care for 3 months
Concierge care
Core testing:
targeted risk markers - cardiovascular, diabetes, cancer
full hormone profiling
critical nutrient markers
annual diagnostic imaging
Foundation program
Foundation Program $4000
Nutrient and toxicity profile
$600 -$1500

Food Antibodies
-96 foods for IgG, E, A.
$450-700

Genetics
Telomere Length - $400
Disease panel - $1200
Pharmacogenetics - $1500

Imaging
CT angiogram -$1000
Breast or Prostate MRI - $1500
Additional Diagnostics
Executive Functions
and
Frontal Lobes

The lateral prefrontal cortex
and
working memory
Damage in the frontal lobe
score within the normal range on IQ tests.
BUT, the loss of a ''goal-oriented'' behavior
taking actions by stimulus driven.
Working memory
the blackboard of the mind.
transient representations of task-relevant information
the integration of this with stored knowledge. (Source memory, associative memory)
Delayed-response task
Neuron Recording
Memory for the temporal order of previous events
Content-Based account
(Alan Baddeley 1995)
Action hierarchy. Successfully achieving a complex goal such as doing well on an exam requires planning and organizaiton at multiple levels of behavior.
Cognitive Control of Goal-Oriented Behavior
The selection of task-relevant information
Goal-oriented behavior requires the selection of task-relevant information.

The prefrontal cortex applies a dynamic filter to select task relevant information
The idea that prefrontal areas are a temporary repository for presentations accessed from other neural sites.
The Prefrontal Cortex and other Memory Domains
Recency Memory
Source Memory
Knowledge concerning the source of informaiton or the context in which the information was learned.
Other tasks, however, have been used to study the contribution of the prefrontal cortex to memory.
Then considering these problems reflect
a common processing deficit
a heterogeneity of function
Process-Based Accounts
N-back test
Goal-oriented behavior
Our actions are not aimless, nor are they entirely dictated by events and stimuli immediately accomplish goals, to gratify personal needs.
Introduction
The selection of appropriate subgoals
Task-control: the ability to shift from one subgoal to another (e.g. multitasking)
Task switching experiments
Retrieval and Selection of Task-Relevant Information
Dynamic filtering mechanism:
the frontal cortex is a repository of representations
and selects information relevant to meet the task demands.
Stroop task
Content or Processing requirement
Deficits in the recency task were restricted to patients in the dorsolateral group.
The same area implicated in working tasks, such as delayed response, is associated with the memory for temporal order.
Word stimuli
the deficit was most evident in patients with
left-hemisphere
lesions.
right-hemisphere lobectomies were associated with impaired performance with drawings.
Involvement of inferior frontal cortex in memory retrieval and response selection. (Thompson-Schill et al., 1997,1998)
Applications of fMRI:
modern executive function tests
ecological validity is emphasized
an fMRI n-back task with both difficulty and reward varying over trials (Pochon et al., 2002)
Cognition:
language
&
executive functions
Functional Neuroimaging of Language
• functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
• magnetoencephalography (MEG)
map brain activity by recording
magnetic fields
produced by
electrical currents
in the brain
• positron emission tomography (PET)
measures changes in the brain via the
injection of radioactive tracers

• computed tomography scan, or CT scan
uses finely focused X-rays together with a detector to create
three-dimensional images
of an object
uses strong magnetic fields to create images of biological tissue
creates images via a series of changing magnetic gradients and oscillating electromagnetic fields, known as a pulse sequence
depending on the frequency, energy from the electromagnetic fields may be absorbed and later emitted by atomic nuclei
scanners are tuned to the frequency of hydrogen nuclei
Principles of Bold fMRI
• measures regional differences in oxygenated blood
• compares images taken during active and rest states
• studies processes that can be rapidly turned on and off
language, vision, movement, hearing, memory
Experimental Design
block design
event-related design
Regions related to Language Processing
The primary repository for the interaction
between current perceptual information
and stored knowledge.
Full transcript