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Taxonomy

How we name and classify living organisms
by

Scott Caudill

on 17 August 2016

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Transcript of Taxonomy

Taxonomy
the branch of biology
concerned with naming
and classifying organisms
Early Taxonomy
Aristotle
384 BC-
322 BC
Aristotle classified all life
as either
plant
or
animal
.
(
A 2-Kingdom system
)
He also used
common names...
His animal kingdom subcategories:
Air animals
Land animals
Water animals
Problems here???
Aristotle called a certain
animal a "kounabi"
Mr Caudill's Dad called
it a "polecat"
So what is it???
Other problems with
common names?
Jellyfish?
Dogwood?
Bark!
What's wrong with
this system??
???
Carolus Linnaeus
(1707--1778)
The Father of Modern
Taxonomy
Linnaues developed the
system of
binomial
nomenclature
--every
organism is given a
scientific name
consisting
of 2 words
(a binomial)
first word:
Genus
second word:
species
in Latin!
Why Latin??
Latin is a "dead" language.
No one speaks it so it does
not evolve into dialects.
.
..and Latin was the
official scientific
language of the day...
Rules for writing
binomials:
1. The Genus is always
capitalized.
2. The species is always
lower-cased.
3. Both words are
italicized or
underlined.
(Mr. Caudill wants you
to underline them!)
Rana pipiens = leopard frog
Musa acuminata = banana
Homo sapiens =
You...
get the idea.......
How do we classify organisms?
Classification of Life:
a hierarchical system is used
where organisms are grouped into
7 categories
(taxa)
of decreasing
size:

Phylum/Division*
Class
Order
Family
Genus
species
(*Use Phylum for Animals and
Division for Plants.)
These are the 7
main taxa:
You can also insert additional taxa
by adding sub- and super- as
prefixes.
Ex: subphylum, superorder
Example: Classification of Humans
Kingdom:
Animalia
Phylum:
Chordata
Subphylum:
Vertebrata
Superclass:
Tetrapoda
Class:
Mammalia
Order:
Primates
Family:
Hominidae
Genus:
Homo
species:
sapiens
How do we categorize
organisms into taxa?

We base it on.....
Phylogeny
--an organism's
evolutionary history--or
how closely it's related to
other organisms

How are phylogenies determined?
in the 21st century, we use....
Comparative
Biochemistry--seuqencing DNA or the amino acids in proteins to look for similarities
Kingdom
Hierarchical System:
Which two animals are most closely related?
REVIEW:
What makes a group of organisms the same species?
if they can
reproduce
and have
fertile offspring
Another Taxon:
the
DOMAIN
The DOMAIN is larger
than the KINGDOM

Bacteria Archaea Eukary(ot)a

Linnaeus used physical characteristics/anatomy...
Full transcript