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Aptitude Tests

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Kami Cornwall

on 11 February 2013

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Transcript of Aptitude Tests

An Overview Aptitude Tests Binet's Theory In 1905 the Binet-Simon scales of mental ability were published. Designed to help teachers find out if students could not learn because of low ability or who would not learn because of poor motivation. Cattell-Horn Get all Crazy Fluid intelligence - problem-solving ability based on experience. Provides theoretical basis for Stanford-Binet Fifth Edition and Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Ability. E.L. Thorndike and L.L. Thurstone Too simple! 1930's - Thurstone uses "common factor analysis" - a procedure that identifies groups of tests that correlate. Came up with 11 primary mental abilities to measure. Charles Spearman in 1904 theorized that all measures of mental abilities were composed of general intelligence (g) and an ability specific to the test (s). Reliable differences in test scores could be explained according to the theory by the presence of individual differences in g and s. Jensen and Wechsler Nine Factors Gf - fluid intelligence (ability to reason in novel situations)
Gc - crystallized intelligence (breadth and depth of general knowledge)
Gq - quantitative ability (ability to comprehend and manipulate numerical symbols and concepts)
Gv - visualization processing (ability to see spatial relationships and patterns)
Ga - auditory processing (ability to discriinate sounds, sound patterns and relationships)
Gs - processing speed (ability to each quick decisions and maintain attention)
Gsm - short-term memory (ability to hold and use a block of information over a short time span)
Glr - long-term retrieval (ability to transfer material to permanent storage and retrieve it later)
CDS - Correct decision speed - ability to reach correct judgments quickly) Sternberg's Triarchic Theory 1970's - Robert Sternberg conducts studies composed of three subtheories. 1. Contextual - different behaviors will be considered intelligent in different environments
2. Experiential - one major aspect of intelligence is ability to automate or routineize behaviors.
3. Componential - attempts to explain how problems are solved and information is processed. Das-Naglieri PASS Model Planning, Attention, Simultaneous Processing, and Successive Processing. The model attempts to relate the four processes to specific neurological structures of areas which Luria called functional systems. Linguistic - facility with words
Logical-mathematical - abstract reasoning with visual or quantitative material
Musical - fluency with tones and auditory material
Spacial - ability to see and manipulate spatial relationships
Bodily-kinesthetic - gross and fine-motor coordination
Interpersonal - ability to deal with others and work effectively in social situations
Intrapersonal - self-knowledge 1983 Howard Garder's 7 "intelligences" Alfred Binet Computerized timing devices helped researchers to record different reaction times. Test results showed those who had shorter reaction times also earned higher scores on standard tests of intelligence. Intelligence Quotient (IQ)
Ratio IQ: Mental age/ Chronological age
Lewis Terman: 1965
First surviving version in US of the Binet-Simon Scales created
SB5 used for wider age range
Tests for general ability (cognitive ability) Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale (SB5), Fifth Edition Pen and paper, verbal, and tactile
Yields scores for five factors
Subtests are verbal and non verbal Standford-Binet Published in 1939 by David Wechsler
Tests suitable for preschoolers, children, and adults
Traditional full scale IQ
Uses four categories, more broad assessment of general ability
WAIS-IV, WASI, WIAT-III, WISC-IV (Spanish), WNV, WPPSI-III Wechsler Scales Pen and pencil, verbal, and tactile
Verbal comprehension index VCI
Perceptual reasoning index PRI
Working memory index WMI
Processing speed index PSI
Each subtest of a scale yields a separate score which is then converted into a normalized standard score with a mean of 10 and a standard deviation of 3.
The subtests standard scores are combined into four groupings to yield total scores for each section. The index scores are scaled to have a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15. Wechsler Multiple Abilities Test
Published by the Psychological Corporation in 1947
Attention is given to separate tests with low intercorrelation
Appropriate for grades 7-12 and adults Differential Aptitude Tests, Fifth Edition Computer or pen and paper
Verbal Ability
Arithmetic Reasoning
Word Knowledge
Coding Speed
Motor Coordination
Finger Dexterity
Manual Dexterity
Form Perception O*NET Administered on Computer
General Science(GS)
Arithmetic Reasoning(AR)
Word Knowledge(WK)
Paragraph Comprehension(PC)
Numerical Operations(NO)
Coding Speed(CS)
Auto and Shop information(AS)
Mathematics Knowledge(MK)
Mechanical Comprehension(MC)
Electronics Information(EI) ASVAB Created by the Department of Defense
1917-1918: Army Alpha and Beta Tests
Replaced by AGCT and NGCT in WWII
1950-1972: used AFQT
1968: ASVAB introduced
Criticized for being to heavy on “G-c”
Used mostly for students and armed services Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery Pen and pencil, verbal, and tactile
Verbal aptitude
Numerical ability
Spatial aptitude
Form perception
Clerical perception
Motor coordination
Manual dexterity
Finger dexterity GATB 1940: Bureau of Employment Security
U.S. Department of Labor
Based on previous tests created for specific jobs
Grades 9+ General Aptitude Test Battery Pen and pencil, verbal, and tactile
Verbal reasoning
Numerical reasoning
Abstract reasoning
Spatial relations
Mechanical reasoning
Perceptual speed and accuracy
Spelling
Language usage DAT Latter day GATB
Test based off of job relevant factors
Identifies strengths and areas in which more training or education may be desired
Identifies occupations that fit personal strengths O*Net Ability Profiler Aptitude Tests are Good for... Finding a career
Identifying traits or interests
Predicting success in specific areas
Guiding and informing important decisions
Factors crucial to career decisions:
-- Personality
-- Interest
-- Intelligence How Do They Do This? Career aptitude tests are scientifically viable, reliable psychometric tests.
Quantify abilities in different areas...
-- Verbal -- Abstract reasoning
-- Numeric -- Spatial reasoning
-- Mechanical
Identify strengths and weaknesses
Identify personal work or communication style
Provide insight into skills and characteristics that help a person succeed (or not) Popular Aptitude Tests The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
-- Identifies perceptions and judgments people use when making decisions
The Strong Interest Inventory
-- Matches interests, work style and learning preferences to occupations
The Kiersey Temperament Sorter
-- Assesses personality type
-- Assumes that temperament reveals interests and choices ASVAB
Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery Designed to "help young adults identify and explore potentially satisfying occupations and develop effective strategies to realize career goals." ASVAB website -- General Science
-- Arithmetic Reasoning
-- Word Knowledge
-- Paragraph Comprehension
-- Mathematics Knowledge
-- Electronics Information
-- Auto and Shop Information
-- Mechanical Comprehension
What it tests:
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