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My Journey

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Sammy Murphy

on 18 October 2014

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Transcript of My Journey

Chapter 1: A carbon dioxide molecule is formed!
Chapter 2: Carbon's Journey through Photosynthesis
-Chapter 3:Carbon's Life as Glucose-
Let us look into this new stage in the life and journey of Billy the carbon atom. As stated previously, some of the carbon molecules within the CO2 absorbed will be used during the light independent reactions to produce high energy sugars, or glucose. This glucose will be stored in the plant until either the plant uses it for energy or it is physically removed by an animal, either directly or indirectly, and used for energy. This is because animals are heterotrophs and cannot produce the glucose themselves. One glucose molecule includes six carbon atoms, one of which is the main character of our story: Billy. It also contains twelve hydrogen atoms and six atoms.
Chapter 4: The Carbon Enters The Animal
Our carbon molecule Billy is growing up and is now a vital part of a glucose molecule. In our story the glucose molecule is eaten by Antonio the rabbit in the form of a berry. This berry is digested and the glucose molecules make their way to the cells, providing energy by being broken down in a process called
cellular respiration
. The glucose molecule Billy is in will enter the cell through the
cell membrane
using protein pumps. In other words, glucose must enter by
facilitated diffusion
because it is a large molecule.
-Chapter 5: Cellular Respiration-
Chapter 6: Cellular Respiration Part Two
Now Billy the carbon atom and his other molecular buddies within the pyruvic acid move into the next step, the
Krebs Cycle
Right before this stage, the pyruvic acid reacts to form acetyl-CoA, and proceeds to enter the Krebs Cycle.
During this cycle, which takes place in the matrix of the
, the pruvic acid is broken down into carbon dioxide into a series of energy releasing stages. Billy will take many forms during this cycle including, but not limited to, Acetly-CoA and citric acid, but will ultimately return again to its happy carbon dioxide form.
It has been a journey for Billy the Carbon Molecule on his quest to find friends. Billy started as a lonely carbon atom, seeking friends, until he was joined by two oxygen atoms to form carbon dioxide. Next, Billy and his two oxygen buddies enter inside of a plant cell and are used in a process called photosynthesis. During this process Billy has to say goodbye to his two oxygen friends, for photosynthesis eventually makes Billy a part of a glucose molecule through a series of reactions.

Billy and his new friends are then stored inside the plant for a brief while until the plant is consumed by the rabbit Antonio. The plant is digested, and the glucose molecules make their way to the rabbit's individual cells. The glucose molecule Billy is in enters one of the rabbits skin cells through the cell membrane. Inside the cell Billy will go through cellular respiration and be converted into pyruvic acid, citric acid, and other stages before being reunited with two oxygen molecules again and becomes carbon dioxide.
Molecular Biography:
Carbon Addition

By Sammy Murphy and Annie Hanchett
Billy the Carbon Molecule
Once upon a time there was a carbon atom named Billy
who goes on a quest that takes him through
photosynthesis and cellular respiration. Before
this, one carbon molecule bonds with oxygen in an ionic bond, which involves the transfer of electrons.

Billy, as a carbon atom, is rather social with
other atoms. He especially likes to bond with
hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus and oxygen.
This story begins when the initially lonely Billy sees two
oxygen atoms Lola and Harold. Together they come
together in an
ionic bond
, which involves the transfer of electrons, and form carbon dioxide.

Carbon Dioxide
Vocab Word:
Ionic Bond: The chemical bond formed when one or more electrons
are transferred from one atom to another.
Ion: An atom that has a positive or negative charge.

Isotope: One of several forms of a single element which contains the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons.
Photosynthesis: The process used by plants and other autotrophs to capture light energy and use it to power chemical reactions that convert CO2 and water into oxygen and energy rich carbohydrates such as sugars and starches.
Now carbon, which is a part of carbon dioxide, takes a turn in its journey in this chapter of its life when it enters a plant through its stoma. This carbon dioxide will be used in a noble process called photosynthesis. To be even more specific, the carbon dioxide will be used in a part of photosynthesis referred to as the light independent reactions. Before these light independent reactions, occur, however a process called the light independent reactions must occur. During this stage light energy within sunlight is absorbed by chlorophyll within the thylakoid membranes. This energy is stored in helpers ATP and NADPH.

Billy, inside the carbon dioxide, comes into the picture during the second part of photosynthesis called the Calvin Cycle. During this phase carbon dioxide the atmosphere and moves into its new home: the stroma. Inside the stroma, Billy undergoes a series of transformations that eventually bonds him with other carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms to form glucose, with assistance from the helpful ATP and NADPH.

Heterotroph: A heterotroph is an organism that obtains food by consuming other organisms.
Antonio the rabbit eats some fresh berries.
Cell Membrane: The cell membrane regulates what enters and leaves the cell. It also protects the cell.

Cellular Respiration: Cellular Respiration is the process that release energy from food in the presence of oxygen.
In the last chapter the carbon-6 molecule glucose, which our hero Billy is a part of, was digested by the rabbit and is now located within a cell. Now we resume with a sad event, for Billy has been separated from three of his carbon friends and some of his other atomic friends in the first stage of cellular respiration:
. Billy has been converted into a 3-carbon molecule called pyruvic acid during a process in the
, called glycolysis, that releases energy. This pyruvic acid moves into the next step: The Krebs Cycle.

Glycolysis: During glycolysis glucose is broken down and rearranged into pyruvic acid, releasing energy.

Hello! I am a
hydrogen atom.
Meet Billy, a carbon atom. Carbon is usually constructed of 6 electrons, 6 protons and 6 neutrons; but if Billy is a carbon
he has a different number of electrons, and if he is an
he will have a different number of neutrons.

Today you will hear my journey: from becoming CO2 to entering photosynthesis to becoming glucose to cellular respiration.
A rare chance to see a glucose molecule
Cytoplasm: A gel-like fluid fond inside the cell
that holds the organelles.
Mitochondria: The "powerhouse" organelle within the cell that converts the energy in food into compounds more useable by the cell.
Krebs Cycle: During the Krebs Cycle pruvic acid is broken down in a series of steps that results in energy and CO2.
The carbon dioxide takes a turn in its journey when it enters the plant and becomes a vital reactant in a process called photosynthesis, specifically the light independent reactions of photosynthesis. Before the light independent reactions occur, however, a process called the light dependent reactions must occur. During this stage light energy within sunlight is absorbed by the chlorophyll, which is located within a part of the plant cell's
called the
thylakoid membranes
. This energy is ultimately used to produce energy helpers like ATP and NADPH .
One of the reactants required for photosynthesis
is H20, or water, this water is used to replenish the electrons charged with sunlight, and provides the H+ ions needed spin the ATP "factories" that produce our helper ATP. It is important to note that photosynthesis, specific the light dependent reactions, also produce the important molecule O2. This is basically oxygen gas.

Billy and his two oxygen buddies come into the picture during the second phase of photosynthesis: The Calvin Cycle (or The Light Independent Reactions). During this phase carbon dioxide is absorbed from the atmosphere into the plant through the stoma and introduced to its new home: the stroma. Inside the stroma the carbon dioxide
will go through a series of reactions that eventually bonds Billy with hydrogen and oxygen buddies to produce glucose. These reactions have the assistance of the energy helpers like ATP produced in the previous phase.

-Meet Today's Characters-
Hello! I am Billy the Carbon Molecule!
Hello! I am Lucy
the hydrogen
Hello! These are my two oxygen buddies Lucy and Harold. Together we form carbon dioxide.
Hello! My name is Bob the
water molecule. I am made up of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom.
Vocab: Facilitated Diffusion:
The process by which molecules that cannot directly diffuse across the cell membrane use special protein channels.
Stroma: A gel-like fluid that fills the inside of the chloroplast.

Thylakoid Membranes: An interconnected system of membranes within the chloroplast where the light dependent reactions occurs.

Chloroplast: An organelle commonly found in plant cells that carries out photosynthesis.
One water molecule is composed of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. They come together in a covalent bond where there is an uneven distribution of electrons causing the molecule to be polar.
Hello! We are
an O2 molecule.
O2, oxygen gas, is an important
by-product of photosynthesis and
is an important reactant in the enery
producing process of photosynthesis.
A hydrogen atom is usually composed of
one electron, one proton and no neutrons.
Even though it isn't a molecule, it does
have important roles in both photosynthesis
and cellular respiration.
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