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AP Biology Chapter 33 - Invertebrates

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Jennifer Tran

on 1 April 2011

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Transcript of AP Biology Chapter 33 - Invertebrates

Chapter 33 What are invertebrates? Invertebrates are animals without a backbone. They make up 95% of the animal species. 33.1 Sponges are sessile and have a porous body and choanocytes Invertebrates SPONGES - phylum Porifera
- are suspension feeders
- lack true tissues
- flagellated choanocytes line inside of the spongocoel
- body of sponge consists of 2 layers of cells separated by the mesohyl Sponges draws water containing food particles through their pores and to the spongocoel a central cavity, and the water flows out through the osculum, a larger opening. Functions of amoebocytes:
digest food from the water and choanocytes
carry nutrients to other cells
produce skeletal fibers within the mesohyl Amoebocytes, are found in the mesohyl; move by pseudopodia. Choanocytes are also called collar cells because it has a collar-like ring that traps food particles around the base of its flagellum. 33.2 Cnidarians have radial symmetry, a gastrovascular cavity and cnidocytes Cnidaria is one of the oldest groups in the clade Eumetazoa, the animals with true tissues. Azure vase sponge White-spotted jellyfish CNIDARIANS -Basic body plan: sac with the gastrovascular cavity (central digestive compartment)
- Tentacles are armed with cnidocytes, which contains a nematocyst
- Cnidarians do not have a brain but instead, they have a noncentralized nerve that is distributed radially 2 variations: polyp and medusa Classes of Phylum Cnidaria Hydrozoa - Both polyp and marine stages
- Polyp stage colonial Schyphozoa Cubozoa Anthozoa - Medusa (jellies) stage is most prevelant form in the life cycle - Medusa is box-shaped and has complex eyes
- Includes box jellies
- Equipped with toxic cnidocytes - Occur ONLY in the polyp stage
- Includes corals and sea anemones 33.3 Most animals have bilateral symmetry Flatworm Clade bilatera consists of animals
with bilateral symmetry and triploblastic development. FLATWORMS - phylum Platyhelminthes
- flattened dorsoventrally
- acoelomates (lack a body cavity)
- have a gastroventricular cavity Classes of Phylum Platyhelminthes Turbellaria Monogenea Trematoda Cestoda ROTIFERS LOPHOPHORATES NEMERTEANS 33.4 Molluscs have a muscular foot, a visceral mass and a mantle MOLLUSCS How is coral formed? Coral has a hard external skeleton and each generation builds on the skeletal remains of earlier generations, constructing "rocks". Flat shape places all cells close to the water, enabling gas exchange to occur by diffusion across the body surface. Flame bulbs waft fluid through branched ducts opening to the outside. - Free-living flatworms
- Planarians (genus Dugesia) are the best-known tubellarians
- Move by using cilia or muscles in a wave-like motion
- Head has pair of light-sensitive eyespots and centralized nerve nets - Parasites of fish
- Simple life cycle: ciliated larva begins infection on host - Require an intermediate host so larvae can develop before infecting the final host (almost always a vertebrate)
- Blood flukes can mimick surface proteins of its hosts and can release molecules that manipulate the hosts' immune systems - Tapeworms are parasitic
- Scolex has suckers and hooks that attach worm to host's intestinal lining
- Lack a gastroventricular cavity; absorb nutrients released by digestion in host's intestine
- Mature proglottids have thousands of eggs. These eggs can develop into larvae that encyst in muslces of pigs or cattle. - phylum Rotifera
- 50 um to 2 mm
- live in fresh water, the ocean and damp soil
- have an alimentary canal, a digestive tube with a separate mouth and anus
- Cilia draws water into the mouth and the pharynx (digestive tract) has jaws (trophi) that grind up food
- Reproduce by parthenogenesis: females produce more females from unfertilized eggs - Lophophore: horseshoe-shaped or circular crown of ciliated tentacles that surround the mouth
- U-shaped alimentary canal
- Lack of a distinct head
- Have a true coelom completely lined by mesoderm Ectoprocts Phoronids Brachiopods - Colonial animals
- Superficially resemble plants,
- colony is sheltered in a hard exoskeleton with pores through which lophophores extend - Tube-dwelling marine worms
- Some live buried in sand within tubes made of chitin, extending lophophore from the tube opening - Superficially resemble clams
- 2 halves are dorsal and ventral
- Most live attached to seafloor by a stalk, opening shell to allow water to flow over lophomore - phylum Nemertea
- Commonly called proboscis worms,
or ribbon worms
- Body is acoelomate but it contains a small,
fluid-filled sac
- Sac and fluid operate an extensible proboscis
- NOT FOUND IN FLATWORMS: Alimentary canal and a closed circulatory system
- No heart; blood pumped by muscles squeezing the vessels - phylum Mollusca
- Includes snails, slugs, oysters, clams, octopi, and squids
- Soft-bodied animals but most are protected by hard shell
- Body has 3 main parts
- Mantle cavity houses gills, anus and excretory pores
- Radula scrapes up food
- Life cycle includes the trochophore, a ciliated larval stage Classes of Phylum Mollusca Polyplacophora (Chitons) Gastropoda Bivalvia Cephalopoda - Oval-shaped body
- Shell divided into 8 plates
- Foot acts as a suction cup and for locomotion
- Radula cuts and consumes algae
- No head - Snails and slugs
- Most distinctive characteristic: torsion
- Have a single, spiraled shell
- Distinct head with eyes at tips of tentacles
- Foot or cilia for locomotion 1. foot- locomotion
2. visceral mass- contains most of internal organs
3. mantle- fold of tissue that folds over visceral mass and can secrete a shell - Clams, oysters, mussels and scallops
- Shell divided into 2 halves, hinged at mid-dorsal line
- No distinct head, no radula
- Mantle cavity contains gills for feeding and gas exchange
- Suspension feeders - Squids, octopi, chambered nautiluses
- Tentacles grab prey and jaws inject poison
- Foot modified to a muscular excurrent siphon
- Shell reduced and internal, or absent
- Well-developed senses and complex brain
- Ammonites: shelled cephalopods 33.5 Annelids are segmented worms Earthworm ANNELIDS - Resembles series of fused rings Classes of Phylum Annelida Oligochaeta Polychaeta Hirudinea (leeches) - Relatively sparse chaetae (bristles made of chitin)
- Freshwater, marine and terrestrial segmented worms (ex. earthforms) - Each segment has paddle-like parapodia (function as gills and used for locomotion) with several chaetae
- Most are marine segmented worms - Predators, parasites
- No chaetae
- Suckers at anterior and posterior ends - Some parasites use bladelike jaws to slit the host's skin; others use enzymes that create a hole in the skin. Hirudin keeps blood from coagulating. 33.6 Nematodes are nonsegmented psudocoelomates covered by a tough cuticle. NEMATODES - phylum Nematoda
- Also called roundworms
- Nonsegmented body
- Posterior end: fine tip; Anterior end: blunt end
- Covered by a cuticle; can shed old and grow a new one
- Plays an important role in decomposition
- Includes agricultural pests and animal parasites
- Parasitic nematodes can redirect host's cellular functions 33.7 Arthropods are segmented coelomates that have an exoskeleton and jointed appendages 33.8 Echinoderms and chordates are deuterostomes Sea star Echinoderms and chordates share characteristics of deuterosomes:
radial cleavage
development of coelom
formation of mouth at end opposite blastopore ECHINODERMS CHORDATES - Echinoderms ("spiny skin") are slow-moving or sessile marine animals
- A thin, bumpy or spiny skin covers an endoskeleton of
hard calcareous plates
- Unique water vascular system
- Internal and external parts radiate from center Classes of Phylum Echinodermata Asteroidea (sea stars) Ophiuroidea (brittle stars) Echinoidea (sea urchins and sand dollars) Crinoidea (sea lilies and feather stars) Holothuroidea (sea cucumbers) Concentricycloidea (sea daisies) - Multiple arms radiating from central disk
- Tube feet under arms act like suction disk
- Can regrow lost arms - Distinct central disk
- Long, flexible arms
- Tube feet lack suckers, which means they are unable to grip
- Move by lashing arms around - No arms but they have 5 rows of tube feet for slow locomotion
- Sea urchins have muscles that pivot their long spines
- Sea urchins are spherical; sand dollars are flattened and disk-shaped - Sea lilies live attached to substrate by a stalk
- Feather stars crawl with long, flexible arms
- Suspension feeders, arms encircle mouth, directed away from substrate - Lack spines, reduced endoskeleton
- Elongated in oral-aboral axis
- 5 rows of tube feet - Armless body, disk-shaped, 5-fold symmetry
- Edge of body ringed with small spines
- Membrane surrounding body absorbs nutrients
- phylum Chordata
- 2 subphyla of invertebrates, and hagfishes and vertebrates
- Did NOT evolve from echinoderms ARTHROPODS - General characteristics:
hard exoskeleton
jointed appendages
open circulatory system
specialized organs Hemolymph is propelled by a heart through arteries and into sinuses surrounding tissues and organs. Subphyla of Phylum Arthropoda Cheliceriformes Myriapoda (millipedes and centipedes) Hexapoda (insects) Crustacea -Chelicerae: clawlike feeding appendages; act as pincers
- Anterior cephalothorax and posterior abdomen
- Lack antennae and have simple eyes
- Most are arachnids, includes scorpions, spiders, ticks and mites
- Gas exchange carried out by book longs, stacked plates in an internal chamber Arachnids have a cephalothorax that has 6 pairs of appendages: chelicerae, pair of pedipalps and 4 pairs of walking legs - Head has pair of antennae and 3 pairs of appendages
- Each trunk segment of a millipede is formed from 2 fused segments and has 2 pairs of legs
- Each segment of a centipede's trunk has 1 pair of legs - Many have 1 or 2 pairs of wings
- Many insects undergo metamorphosis
incomplete metamorphosis
complete metamorphosis
Nymphs (the young) are smaller versions of the adults and lack wings. Every time a nymph goes through a molt, it looks more like an adult. Specialized larval stages for eating and growing and looks different from the adult stage (which is specialized for reproduction). Metamorphosis from larval to adult stage occurs during pupal stage. See pages 662-663 for the order of insects - Crabs, lobster, crayfish and shrimp
- Have specialized biramous (branched) appendages
anterior appendages: antennae
3+ appendages: mouthparts
- Isopods: flattened body, 7 pairs of legs (ex. pill bugs)
- Decapods: cuticle hardened by calcium carbonate; caraspace is a shield that is formed from the dorsal side of the cephalothorax; stalked eyes, 10 pairs of legs (eg. lobsters, crabs)
- Copepods: tiny marine crustaceans that lives along plankton
- Barnacles: sessile cructacean; hardened cuticle SUMMARY - Table 33.7 on page 668
- YouTube: bozemanbiology
Invertebrate Diversity, 5:50+
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