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Visualization & Intercultural Communication

Master of Advanced Studies in Intercultural Communication - Modul 5 Linguistique et sémiotique - Part II
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Sabrina Bresciani

on 27 April 2015

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Transcript of Visualization & Intercultural Communication

MODULE 5: Linguistique et sémiotique
Part II: Visualization & Intercultural Communication

Master of Advanced Studies in Intercultural Communication
Università della Svizzera italiana
April 24-25th 2015
Prof. Dr. Sabrina Bresciani
University of St. Gallen, Switzerland
bresciani.sabrina@gmail.com
sabrinabresciani.com

1. Introduction
2. Sketches
Supports client communication
Creates involvement and invites participation
Creates personal touch and simplicity
Case: UBS Hand drawing library
3. Diagrams
Let’s practice!
Develop your own!
3 main goals
Synergies and tradeoffs
Synergy map
(sw: let’s focus)
Fishbone/Ishikawa diagram
}
5. Visual Metaphors
4. Knowledge Maps
6. Interactive & 3D
Virtual Worlds
Training
Schmeil, A., Eppler, M.J. (2008). Collaboration Patterns for Knowledge Sharing and Integration in Second Life: A Classification of Virtual 3D Group Interaction Scripts. Conference Proceedings I-KNOW 08, Graz, Austria
Voting/ Decision making
Lego Serious Play for strategy development and corporate identity workshops
Source: www.knowledge-communication.org www.lego.com
Adapted from: Eppler, M.J. & Burkhard, R., Visual Representations in Knowledge Management: framework and cases, Journal of Knowledge Management, 4(11), 112-122, 2007.
http://www.visual-literacy.org/periodic_table/periodic_table.html
Eppler, M.J. & Mengis, J., Management Atlas, Management-Methoden für den Arbeitsalltag, Hanser, 2011. ISBN-10: 3-446-42701-5
Argument map
Mindmap
Roam, Dan. 2008. The Back of the Napkin: Solving Problems and Selling Ideas with Pictures. Portfolio / Penguin Group (USA) Inc.
Source: Eppler M.J. & Pfister, R. (2010) Sketching at work. =mcm University of St. Gallen: pg. 21. Based on Mayer.
Conceptual
Metaphorical
Configurational
Why? Dual coding theory & Picture superiority effect
“Visualization provides multiple retrieval paths for accessing knowledge”

(Paivio, 1969; Clark & Paivio, 1991)

Information is processed through one or two channels:
-the verbal (textual, auditory, sequential)
-non-verbal or imagery (visual, spatial)
using both channels together increases:
recall, engagement and attention



Dual Coding Theory
Recall
Source: Tufte, E. R., The visual display of quantitative information. Cheshire, Connecticut,
Graphic Press, 1986.
(a-ha effect)
Why? Visuospatial reasoning (Tversky 2004)
i.e. pattern recognition, search, overview-zoom
New Insight
Elaboration
Motivation
Coordination
Attention
Disadvantages
Please draw a house
Overdeterminism
Sources: Pro4s, Cambridge, UK
Shimoijma A., On the efficacy of Representations, Indiana University, PhD Thesis, 1996
Source: Bresciani, S., Eppler, M.J. (2009). The Risks of Visualization: a Classification of Disadvantages Associated with
Graphic Representations of Information. In: Schulz, P.J., Hartung, U., Keller, S. (Eds.), Identität und Vielfalt der
Kommunikations-wissenschaft, UVK Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, Konstanz (Germany), pp. 165-178
Confusion/Overload
Manipulation/Ambiguity
Wainer H., How to display data badly, The American Statistician, Vol. 38, n. 2, 1984.
Manipulation
llama
1. Color
2. Direction
3. Icons and symbols
4. Humor
5. Visual metaphors
6. Focus of attention
7. Nature of thought
7 main factors of cross-cultural differences
Visualization is a universal language.
True?
Yes
No
Source: United Nations ESCWA public report
Jamae Mosque, Singapore
Conventions of pictorial representation are culture-bound (Scott, 1990)
In the United States it is typical and welcome to use humor in business conversations (Lewis, 1999),
but in many other countries it is perceived as inappropriate, offensive and might not even be understood as humor
Metaphors fulfill their function only if they can be understood cross-culturally (Hogan 2007)
Only a handful of sports are well known globally (Beamer & Varner, 2008)
Field dependence-independence (Witkin and Berry, 1975)
Change blindness (Masuda & Nisbett, 2006)
1. Overcoming linguistic barriers
2. Providing double cues
3. Seeing the Big Picture
4. Surface misunderstanding
5. Prevent personal conflict
Reference:
Bresciani, S. (2013). Organizational Communication with Visual Mapping: Comparing East and West. In D. Ingenhoff (Ed.), Internationale PR-Forschung. Konstanz: UVK Verlag.
and the relations
* Power distance
3. Applications
Meetings and Dialogue
Advocacy
Education
4. Practice
Sabrina Bresciani
bresciani.sabrina@gmail.com
sabrinabresciani.com
kolours.org
Why? Impact on emotional attitude (Huff, 1990; Buzan, 2002)
Source: Visualizing information for advocacy. An introduction to information design, John Emerson, Principal at Apperceptive LLC.
[Optional reading]
Attention / Motivation
Software
Hardware
(+ sw)
Group Support System (GSS; =intranet; usually face to face)
Social media (=online; remote)

Multiple mice + projector http://www.wunderworks.com/teamplayer/

Touch-screen
Multi-touch screens
For collaborating
Tools
"But I can't draw..."
Evaluate
Utilize
Create
Help the New York Times to present the information with a visualization which is: informative and not misleading
Improving visualizations: NYT case
CARMEN
C
oordination: it facilitates interaction.
A
ttention: it is noticed.
R
ecall: it is remembered.
M
otivation: it mobilizes the viewers.
E
laboration: it fosters understanding.
N
ew insights: it enables new discoveries.
Empathy map
Recall
(a-ha effect)
Why? Visuospatial reasoning (Tversky 2004)
i.e. pattern recognition, search, overview-zoom
What? Reasoning, evaluating, problem solving
Why? Lower computational effort compared
to sentential representations
Source: Larkin and Simon 87: Why a Diagram is (Sometimes) Worth Ten Thousand Words
Insight
Elaboration
2. Theories and frameworks
Does it work?
Communicating strategy
- with text vs. visual
- with culture-specific visuals
Source: Bresciani S., Eppler M., Tan, M., (2011). Communicating Strategy Across Cultures with Visualization: An Experimental Evaluation. Academy of Management annual meeting, 12-16 August 2011: San Antonio, Texas. Carolyn Dexter Award nominee.
Effectiveness of global teams
Diversity should not be ignored!
Advantages
Classification
Source: Bresciani, S. (forthcoming). Do you see what I see? The Effect of Culture on the Reception of Visual Communication. In S. Poutiainen (Ed.), Theoretical Turbulence in Intercultural Communication Studies.
Sibbet, D. (2010). Visual meetings: how graphics, sticky notes and idea mapping can transform group productivity. Wiley. Chapter 9 pg. 109-132.
Source: Nisbett, R. E., & Miyamoto, Y. (2005). The influence of culture: holistic versus analytic perception. TRENDS in Cognitive Sciences; 9 (10), 467-473.
For choosing visualizations
Westerners favor reasoning that is:
-abstract
-analytic
-based on rules and categorization

East Asians:
-holistic view of the world
-focus on relationships
-focus on similarities
Research:
360 participants in Europe and Asia
Results:
- strategy is perceived as better

when it is visualized
- subjects are more committed to implement it!

Cultural preferences:
- Westerners prefer linear abstract diagrams
- Non-westerners prefer metaphors and story-telling
Visualization in an intercultural context
Intercultural Communication with visualization
1. Realistic
Photos
Videos
Illustrations
Activity
Develop and draw a metaphor
to describe
your knowledge/ area of expertise
World statistics
& data visualization

Hans Rosling, Professor of International Health at Karolinska Institute
www.gapminder.org
CocaCola websites around the world
USA
Germany
China
very structured, clear categories
crowded, people, faces
rules
vs.
relationships
Marketing/ Web
dramatic Japanese movie dealing with the happenings in Kobe during the Second World War
Purpose of cartoons, manga and anime
West
Asia
Japan
for children
serious topics
dramatic topics
(but changing...)
Visual humor
Analog
Digital
Collaborating
Presenting
Prezi
Timetoast (timelines)
Pdf
Sticky notes
Whiteboard
Sketching
objects (i.e., legos)
inspiration.com (edu)
mindjet (mindmap)
compedium (arg mapping)
Adobe Photoshop, Illustrator
PPT/Keynote
HTML5 / Java
Videos (i., with Premiere)
Spacedeck (online whiteboard)
Piktochart, Venngage (infographs)
debategraph (arg maps)
Identify, describe and analyse a brief real case in which a visual representation has been used to communicate or collaborate in an intercultural context.
Module 5 Part II Assignment
Step 1: Identify and develop a real mini-case of 1 page describing how a visual representation was utilized in an intercultural setting
Step 2: Analyse the visual according to the principles and frameworks discussed during the module
(1)advantages across all cultures and
(2) the advantages specifically for intercultural comm.
(3) the problems in diverse cultural settings
Expected output: 2 pages and least one image, plus references.

Evaluation is based on:
(1) the relevance of the selected case in relation to the topic of the course
(2) the clarity of the case description
(3) the quality of the analysis with references
to the concepts discussed in the course.

Animations: PowToons, Videoscribe
Represent your culture VISUALLY
i.e., with a metaphor, graphs,
a cultural event...
Some examples:
Moderate a group meeting
with a visual template
Task: You are a consultant for an NGO.
The NGO plans to implement a computer lab for
poor rural children in India

Map the potential intercultural communication issues between the local Indian teachers and the Lugano-based NGO personnel
[Visualization as a process]
How does culture affects collaboration?
GLOBE study
Full transcript