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The Logical Fallacies

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Fabienne Noel

on 16 April 2014

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Transcript of The Logical Fallacies

Ethos, Pathos.Logos
The Logical Fallacies

Fabienne Noel, Patrice Allen and Kebreworq Woldmariam
Ad Hominem

Appeal to Emotions

Meaning "Against the person" - Attacks the person and not the issue.
Manipulating people's emotions in order to get their attention away from an important issues.

Appeal to People
uses the views of the Majority as a persuasive device.

Virgin mobile – Logos
McDonalds- Pathos
1. Target Audience: Middle/working class family


2. Logical Fallacy used: Appeal to emotions

3. Message: McDonald’s fosters family relationships and brings people together

4. This message persuades consumers that McDonald’s is family oriented

5. The overall message implies that McDonald’s contributes to the bonding of family units and boasts a diverse array of customers from all different backgrounds

6. This message says that there is lack of family bonding happening within the working class family and so McDonald’s can facilitate

this problem

1. Target audience: US citizens, 18+ who are eligible to vote in elections

2. Logical Fallacy used: Ad Hominem

3. Message: Mitt Romney uses this political attack ad to criticize his opponent Barack Obama, rather than focus on the political issues

4. By discrediting his opponent Barack Obama, this ad persuades the target audience to sway their votes towards the Republican candidate Mitt Romney

5. A vote for Mitt Romney is a vote for America, and by doing so you will support job creation

6. This message says democrats are incapable of running the country

Ad: Mitt Romney “Right Choice Ad” - Ethos

Creates the impression that everybody is doing it and so should you.
1.Target Audience: Athletes and sport enthusiasts

2. Logical Fallacy used: Bandwagon

3. Message: Nike makes you a better athlete

4. This message persuades consumers that because all these top athletes use Nike products, you too can be just like them if you buy Nike

5. The overall message implies it is because of Nike products, that these top athletes perform at the standards that they do and you too should use Nike if you want to succeed

6. This ad says that everyone wants to be at the top of their game and so Nike shows them that they can reach that level of excellence just by using Nike products. However, this is false because it ignores the hard work necessary to be anywhere near the level that these athletes are at.

Nike's Ad - Logos

False Cause

wrongly assumes a cause and effect relationship.
Coca-Cola GTA Ad - Pathos
1. Target Audience: Gamers as well as young consumers

2. Logical fallacy used: False Cause

3. Message: By drinking Coca-Cola you will be loved by everyone

4. This message persuades consumers by falsely convincing them that Coca-Cola has the power to turn even the nastiest people into heroes

5. The overall message implies we can all be better people in life if we drink Coca-Cola

6. This ad says that young people, especially gamers may not be the nicest people in society and may need to drink some more Coca-Cola in order to get along with others better.

False dilemma

Limits the possible choices to avoid consideration of another choice.
According to Jim - Logos

1. Target Audience: 16 - 30 year olds

2. Logical Fallacy: Appeal to People

3. Message: You will have access to discounts if you are a member of virgin mobile.

4. This message persuades young people to be member of virgin mobile in order to get discounts off of movies, clothing stores, and hotels.

5. The overall message: It is better to be a member of Virgin Mobile than any other phone company.

6. This message: This ad reflects the young culture of always wanting to be in the loop of thing and connected to a community. When you are with your friends it the norm to say that you are member of Virgin mobile.

Creates fear in people as evidence to support claim.
1. Target Audience: Teens and young Adults.

2. Logical Fallacy: Scare Tactic

3. Message: If you use meth you will damage yourself physically and emotionally. Young people do meth.

4. This message states that taking meth is not worth the side affects that it brings. The message is also that your skin will become blemished and you will lose your beauty when on meth.

5. The overall message is if you use Meth you will perform bodily harm to yourself and become emotionally damaged.

6. This message reflects our society because a lot of drug users are teens and young adults.

Scare Tactic
Meth Ad - Ethos
Red herring

Hasty Generalization

This fallacy is committed when a person draws a conclusion about a population based on a sample that is not large enough.
Appeal to popularity
A fallacy in which an irrelevant topic is presented in order to divert attention from the original issue. The basic idea is to "win" an argument by leading attention away from the argument and to another topic.
Heineken commercial - Jamaica - Logos
1. Target Audience: Young single adults who enjoy fast foods

2. Logical Fallacy used: Hasty generalization

3. Message: Falsely generalizes that all men love bacon

4. This message persuades consumers that bacon has extraordinary powers beyond just being food

5. The overall message implies bacon lovers, specifically men are uncontrollably addicted to it that they can be easily manipulated by their love for it

6. The ad says men are easily manipulated and exploited, removing them of their ability to make decisions for themselves

Taco Bell “Guys Love Bacon”
Ad - Logos
1. Target Audience: Upper class, middle aged people who make 70,000+ annually

2. Logical Fallacy used: Red Herring

3. Message: Tells consumers to live life to the fullest and be present within every moment

4. The message persuades consumers by triggering nostalgia and reflecting back on their personal lives which is irrelevant to buying a car

5. The overall message distracts consumers away from the fact that Lexus is selling them a car, to make them only focus on the message of reflection

6. The ad speaks to middle age or older people and says that they should live life more fully and can do so buy splurging on that new Lexus

Lexus “Moments” Ad- Logos

1. Target Audience: 18 – 50 year olds
2. Logical Fallacy: False Dilemma
3. Message: Parents either choose that they are good or bad parents.
4. The message persuades the viewers of the show that children are a product of their environment. If a parent raisins a child the right way they will be able to make good decision but if a child has not been raised the right way then they will make poor decisions.
5. The overall message: Is you are either a good parent or a bad parent.
6. In our society we often blame the behavior of a child on the parent. From nanny 911 to Super Nanny behaviour issues have always been linked to the lack of discipline. Our society believes that parents must discipline the child so we can have responsible adults.

1. Target Audience: Tourist (25+)
2. Logical Fallacy: Appeal to poplularity.
3. Message: You can enjoy a Heineken away from home because our brand is popular.
4. This message persuades the viewers to travel anywhere around the world and enjoy a Heineken beer.
5. The overall message is that stereotypes play a role in people visiting other countries. People want to experience a different cultures. People want to "feel" Jamaican and accepted but people also want something that is familiar to them.
6. This message is Heineken is well known all over the world. This is important to our society because when we travel we want to feel comfortable and have something that is familiar to us.

A fallacious argument that concludes a proposition to be true because many or most people believe it.
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