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Geography Assignment - Threatened Habitats

For Year 8 - 8GEO1
by

Jonathan Koruga

on 20 March 2013

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Transcript of Geography Assignment - Threatened Habitats

By Jonathan Koruga and Robbie Agaba Geography Assignment - Threatened Habitats photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli Threatened habitats occur when places where animals live are destroyed. This is due to a wide variety of reasons such as deforestation, natural disasters, pollution and urbanisation.

These are divided into two categories; Natural and Human Activities Why Threatened Habitats occur Urbanisation is the increase of the population of people in cities compared to those in rural areas. Gradually, year-by-year, this number is increasing. The most common occupation in rural areas is farming and since this is dependent on the conditions and weather, more people are lured to urban areas for more money.

In contrast, the main occupation in urban areas is business which offers more money than farming. Since more people are migrating to cities, more urbanised areas need to be built. When there is a need for a city to be built, everything in the way is cut down and animals lose their homes. Also if they try to come back, they are more than often killed.

Nowadays, to combat this, governments and organisations are encouraging counter-urbanisation. Urbanisation Deforestation is the clearing or logging of a forest or area with trees. Deforestation occurs for many reasons such as farming land for fields and pastures etc., timber for furniture etc., and urbanisation for houses etc. There are many detrimental effects of deforestation other than threatened habitats including the salt table rising, erosion and more carbon dioxide being released into the air.

Deforestation is becoming more of a problem and over 90% of the Amazon rainforest has been logged. There are many ways people can help with this issue such as by recycling paper, buying sustainable timber and planting more trees. Deforestation There are countless different types of natural disasters - hurricanes, volcanic eruptions, floods, droughts, bushfires, tornadoes and tsunamis. Many of these are results of the human race collectively. These natural disasters are destructive and they destroy everything in their path often killing wildlife.

If the wildlife manage to escape, when they return, there is no land left and nowhere to live and raise a family. This is one of the major causes of animal extinction. Natural Disasters Pollution is the contamination of the natural environment by harmful products that are often made by human-related activities. There are three main types of pollution, air pollution, water pollution and soil pollution.

Air pollution is caused by smoke from cars, factories, etc, whereas water pollution is caused by waste from factories and soil pollution is caused by fertilisers and chemicals being added to the soil.

Pollution is one of the causes of climate change. It ruins the natural environment and causes many animals deaths, for example when turtles eat plastic bags or drink poisoned water. This can lead to extinct species, something which governments all over the word are trying to prevent. Pollution Natural related incidents Human activity related incidents Clear felled forest Bushfire traffic jam in a major city Pollution from factories Governments are overall responsible for introducing plans to balance the use of land and resources with the natural environment so that we don't have to interfere with nature. Governments are also responsible for the economy which can come under pressure when large tourist attractions (e.g. Great Barrier Reef) start to degrade. There are many benefits that come from conserving the environment for governments too. Responsibility of governments Benefits of conserving the environment for governments Natural environments, if untouched have the potential to grow into tourist attractions such as the coral reefs. A tourist attraction will bring money and popularity which can help the civilization be more independent rather than depending solely on the environment for their needs. Some nations rely heavily on the environment to provide them with the niceties to survive. Another reason why the government should conserve natural environments is because animals have habitats there. By destroying the natural environment, the many different animals living there are left with no home and often die. Habitat loss this is the leading cause of endangered species and if ignored, could become another problem for governments. Some benefits of conserving wildlife habitats as well as conserving natural environments are: Throughout the threatened habitats in the world, there are lots of different perspectives on whether we should save the natural environment or not, and how we should do so. Different perspectives on threatened habitats - maintenance of healthy ecosystems
- avoidance of costly environmental problems like salinity or water pollution
- avoidance of costly environmental problems such as salinity and water pollution
- ecotourism and improved recreational areas
- improved environmental and resulting community health
- conservation of heritage values including Aboriginal heritage values
- an enhanced sense of community and an increase in residence concern for and connection to their surroundings
- satisfaction of legal responsibilities under state and federal legislation. The action of individuals, groups and governments on threatened habitats Government actions Group actions Individual action All individuals leave an ecological footprint on the environment. We each have the responsibility to preserve the environment for the next generations to come. Some actions we can take to reduce our footprint can be:

recycling our household items
using our resources conservatively
using public transport whenever given the opportunity
educating other people
using energy saving devices
reducing the use of chemicals
buying products that don't harm the biosphere
supporting the organisations that work to save threatened habitats. Different people have different opinions on almost every single issue known to mankind. Whilst some prioritise the issue of threatened habitats more, sadly others do the opposite.

Some approaches include:
- 'I can't be bothered', 'what's the point' and 'it's natural'. These reasons imply a total sense of not caring about the natural world.

-The 'why now' and 'why do we even need animal species'. Excuses such as these imply that their life is too busy to help out.

- 'how will I make my next dollar' and 'I have more important things to do'. Sadly, people are too preoccupied about themselves and their lives that anything else.

These perspectives are detrimental to the effectiveness of conservation work all over the world. Negative views The best way to save threatened habitats and their communities is to first, prevent them from becoming threatened. Everyone can plays an important role in conserving animal habitats, including individuals, governments and non-government organisations. We are responsible for the already threatened habitats and so we are responsible for conserving them for the next generation. The positive perspectives on saving threatened habitats are the ones that help keep those habitats and species alive.

Some examples of why people do this are:
- Religious beliefs. In some religions, people believe that it is their responsibility to god to care for the environment, hence reasons such as 'this place is sacred' and 'God made this world for us to live in and care for'.

- Ethical reasons. 'Future generations want to see this like us' is motivation to keep the species alive.

- Scientific reasons. People who have these beliefs care about the people of the world. Some reasons include 'a healthy ecosystem means a healthy planet' and 'Our actions put pressure on these species, let's do something about it'.

- Health-based reasons. Many medicinal breakthroughs have occurred from the natural environment, and some people want to keep natural ingredients to help those sick. Positive views Non Government Organisations (NGOs) raise awareness of threatened habitats. These organisations team up with local governments and individuals who are eager to help. Finally, NGOs form projects and with the help of the community, achieve these projects.

An excellent example of this is when in 1988, Ian Kieran, an Australian builder and a solo yatchsman, saw how much rubbish was being dumped in the ocean and decided to organise a cleanup of this. With the help of the 40 000 Australians, he was able to start a traditional occasion now called 'Clean Up Australia Day'. Referencing Parker Brian, Fitzpatrick Rebecca, Owens Debra, Kate Lancely, 2004, Geography for global citizens, Macmillan, South Yarra Books Websites Threatened Habitats - The global issue and differing perspectives, 2012, Viewed 9 September 2012, http://www.skwirk.com.au/p-c_s-16_u-186_t-501_c-1847/NSW/7/The-global-issue-and-differing-perspectives/Threatened-habitats/Geographical-issues-and-global-citizenship-physical-elements/Geography/

NSW Government 2011, Local governments and regional bodies, Viewed 16 September 2012, http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/threatenedspecies/tscominvmaneleven.htm

Greeny34, 2012, Threatened Habitats, viewed 9 September 2012, http://www.scribd.com/doc/26713379/Threatened-Habitats

tilak, 2009, Red List! The number of Endangered Species are increasing every year, viewed 16 September 2012, http://www.buzzom.com/2009/11/red-list-the-number-of-endangered-species-are-increasing-every-year/ Threatened habitats is an international problem facing the world currently. It is an issue of global social justice and equity. The responsibilities of governments is become more important due to the fact that the habitats have resources we need. Governments protect habitats by: introducing and monitoring new environmental laws
introducing and monitoring new legislation and policies protecting habitats
educating society about habitat destruction and the actions that need to take place to stop it.
conducting research and development on habitat protection
organising global meetings
involving Indigenous and local communities to use a mix of local and introduced knowledge to improve situations. http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/threatenedspecies/tscominvmaneleven.htm
11.4 The number of threatened species is growing and this is due to threatened habitats. This graph to the right gives an accurate interpretation of the statistics. Video - Vanishing Species Skip to 9min and 38sec for talk on threatened species/habitats Vanishing Species - Biological Diversity and Conservation, 2010, YouTube, America, online video, viewed 16 September 2012, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6A5FpCBYaw U
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