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Lincoln County War and Billy the Kid
Transcript of Lincoln County War and Billy the Kid
Murphy & Dolan Mercantile and Banking
H.H. Tunstall and Company
John Tunstall was an successful English entrepreneur and rancher.
He met Alexander McSween and became business partners.
John Chisum, who was a successful ranch owner in the area supported Tunstall and McSween and helped to create this company.
Because of the opening of H.H. Tunstall and Company, Murphy and Dolan started to lose money.
Tunstall refused to back down and close his store, even though threats were coming in from the rival business.
Factions, endorsed by Muprhy and Dolan, were starting to take form and they orders were to kill Tunstall.
Billy the Kid
Tunstall was worried about the factions set out for him, so for protection, he hired Billy the Kid.
Tunstall thought Billy was a nice kid, very loyal.
As well as a bodyguard, Billy also worked on the farm, doing things like feeding the animals and working in the fields.
Lawrence Murphy and James Dolan, and eventually John Riley
They owned the major general store, in Lincoln County.
Because of this, they were able to start controlling prices, make huge profits and be a part of every transaction that was made in the county.
Their store became known as "The House"
(Dolan and Muprhy)
Born as William Henry McCarty, Jr
Known as William H. Booney
Famous as Billy the Kid
The Court Order
Since Murphy and Dolan had powerful political influence, they were able to get a court order for Tunstall to give up some of his horses to pay off a debt.
When Tunstall refused, the sheriff of Lincoln County, William Brady, and others along with William Morton formed a group to go to Tunstall's ranch and collect the horses.
Death of John Tunstall
When Sheriff Brady and his men got to Tunstall's ranch, Tunstall was on his way back from herding his horses.
When he and his other men see the men, Tunstall goes forth to try and talk to the sheriff.
As soon as he got close enough, he was shot down by William Morton
March 1853-February 1878
1843- July 1878
Effects on Billy the Kid
The death of John Tunstall was what triggered Billy the Kid and started his infamous career.
At Tunstall's funeral Billy the Kid swore a vendetta against all the people involved in his death.
More importantly William Morton (the one who shot Tunstall), Murphy and Dolan (the ones who ordered it) and Sheriff Brady.
The Search for Morton
After months and months of battles and massacres, Morton was found near Roswell.
The Regulators were supposed to take them to Lincoln County for trial but emotions got the best of them and shot him there.
Sheriff William Brady
August 1829-April 1878
Even though there were some people who were not directly involved with this war going on, gunmen would not hesitate to shoot another gunmen on opposite sides.
Andrew "Buckshot" Roberts is a good example of this. Although he was not there when Tunstall died, he was a supporter of Murphy and that made him the enemy
Richard Brewer, Tunstall's 2nd in command on the ranch put together a group called "The Regulators".
He got official law orders from John Wilson that made every man in the group a deputy.
With his help, they were allowed to go after Morton, with the law on their side.
A Change in the War
Because of all the killings, Sheriff Brady needed some assistance and asked for the Territorial Governor's help, Samuel Axtell.
He pronounced that John Wilson had been illegally appointed and the deputizing of the Regulators was an insufficient act.
Death of Sheriff William Brady-
Inside the store that Tunstall had owned, the Regulators were hiding out there and getting their rest.
They saw the sheriff and his men riding down the street and shots were fired, ambushing the sheriff.
Sheriff Brady died of about 12 bullets and a few of his men were fatally injured.
Samuel B. Axtell
October 1819-August 1891
Sheriff George Peppin
After Brady was killed, Peppin took his place.
He was heavily influenced by Murphy-Dolan and for that reason, set out to find the Regulators.
By July, 2 Regulators had been killed.
Killed by Sheriff Peppin and his men
Battle of Lincoln-
Regulators were surrounded by Sheriff Peppin, men that Dolan had put together, the Seven Rivers Warriors who had been involved in the faction supporting Murphy-Dolan, and eventually the U.S. Army.
After 3 days of fighting and shooting, baracades were shot down by cannons, the houses that they were in were lit on fire.
A few of the Regulators were shot trying to sneak out the back of a house, however, otheres were shot.
Axtell to Wallace
Because of his corrupt dealings in politics, Territorial Governor Samuel Axtell was taken out of office and replaced by Lewis Wallace.
After the Battle of Lincoln, he provided an amnesty for all the Regulators and others involved in the war, all except Billy the Kid.
This act and the Battle of Lincoln County brought and end to the Lincoln County War.
April 1827-February 1905
After Peppin was in office, George Kimbell took his place but didn't stay for very long. In his place was Pat Garrett.
Sheriff Garrett was ordered to find Billy the Kid and his accomplices and bring them to trial.
After finding a few of Billy the Kid's friends, he finally caught up to him and brought him to Mesilla, NM for trial. Although he was convicted, Billy was able to escape, killing his two guards a few days before the execution.
June 1850-Feb 1908
Lincoln County Courthouse
Death of Billy the Kid
After a few months of trying to find him, Sheriff Garrett went to Fort Sumner and got word that Billy the Kid was staying with a friend and went to the Maxwell farm.
There he wanted until the opportune time to surprise Billy the Kid and he got it.
The Final Hours
In the middle of the night, Garrett was waiting in a dark corner of a room and when Billy entered, he couldn't tell who it was.
Billy asked "Who is it" and as soon as Garrett recognized his voice, he fired two shots.
One shot striking him in his chest, killing him and the other just barely missing his body
Billy the Kid is shot to death. (2013). The History Channel website. Retrieved October 10, 2013, from http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/billy-the-kid-is-shot-to-death.
Geringer, Joseph. Henry McCarty: The Wild West's "Billy the Kid". Trutv website. Retrieved October 7, 21013, from http://www.trutv.com/library/crime/gangsters_outlaws/outlaws/mccarty/3.html
Murder ignites Lincoln County War. (2013). The History Channel website. Retrieved October 10, 2013, from http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/murder-ignites-lincoln-county-war.
New Mexico Legends: New Mexico's Lincoln County War. Legends of America Website. Retrieved October 7, 2013, from http://www.legendsofamerica.com/nm-lincolncountywar.html
Simkin, John. Lincoln County War. Spartacus Educational website. Retrieved October 10, 2013, from http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/WWlincolnwar.htm
The Lincoln County War. About Billy the Kid website. Retrieved October 7, 2013, from http://www.aboutbillythekid.com/Lincoln_County_War.htm