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Understanding the Television and Film Industries
Transcript of Understanding the Television and Film Industries
and Film Industries
Ownership and Funding
I hope you enjoyed it!!
All television channels need
funding, but there are various ways to be funded.
Typically only public owned companies receive financial aid from government to help them first start up.
(For example The BBC and Channel 4)
'Private' companies are set up using a mix of funding from their owners and investors.
Every household pays a TV LICENCE FEE!
In the UK only The BBC gets the money from the fee.
Subscription is where you
pay a certain amount
per month for a range of channels.
Pay Per View
Pay for what you want to watch.
For example, Sky Box Office
Sponsorship is where a company pays for
their product to feature before and after
a certain TV programmes and films.
The Independent Television Commission
issues a Code of Programme Sponsoship.
there are also certain companies that
cannot sponsor programmes.
Channel 4 does not recieve any public
funding, but are funded predominantly by advertising and sponsorship.
ITV's family of digital channels are broadcast
free-to-air on Freeview, digital satellite and cable, and are funded by advertising and sponsorship.
Advertising and sponsorship are very similar.
Time slots between programmes are bought out
by companies so they can feature their advert
at this time. Time slots closer to the beginning
and ending of a programme are more
expensive because that's when viewing
rating are at their highest.
Product placement is where a certain product,
or brand of product feature within the
TV show -this also occurs in music videos.
Some examples are:
Accessory merchandising is creating
products with the logo, or characters from
the show on them.
Private capital is typically invested, rather than donated. The distinctions between the two are:
In an investment the investor is hoping to make a profit from the ownership the investment buys, and perhaps to take the money out at some point by selling the 'share' owned.
In a donation the donor is gifting the money to the company, although there are usually restrictions stating how it must be spent.
Religious groups are commonly known to do this, for example Christian content on GOD Channel).
Sometimes corporations will be a government body if the subject
matter of the programme falls within its sphere of administrative responsibility.
All channels and networks are sorted
into ownership categories, so now
I'm going to explain the various
types of ownership.
The Office of Communications (Ofcom) is the government-approved communications regulator.
Ofcom is responsible for licensing all UK commercial television services.
Public Service: The BBC
Public Service: Channel 4
Public service channels are funded by the public, mainly through TV licences. The traditional role
of public television has been to air educational
and entertaining programming.
Channel 4 and the BBC are both public service channels.
The BBC is not permitted to carry
advertising or sponsorship on its public services. This keeps them independent
or commercial interests and ensures they can be run purely to serve the general public interest.
Channel 4 is a publicly owned, commercially funded public service broadcaster.
Commercial television networks are funded
mainly by commercials!
However, they are chiefly defined as being in business to make a profit for their owners.
ITV is the largest commercial television network
in the UK.
Other Commercial Television
Channel 5 is wholly owned by Northern & Shell, who own four national newspapers.
Private companies might have a couple of definitions:
In general terms, any company that isn't public-owned, like the BBC and C4, is a private company.
Any company that is neither public-owned nor a 'plc' (which is a set-up where anyone can freely buy or sell shares in the company on the stock exchange) is a private company, as only a select number of people own the company.
Almost all private companies in film and television production and distribution/broadcasting are commercial for profit companies, but there are a few exception. Most notably in the UK is the GOD Channel, which is a not for profit business, established to promote a set of beliefs and funded in its mission by several Christian charities.
Flame TV is one of the UK's leading independent television production companies.
An independent company is essentially defined as one not owned by a parent company, not therefore part of a corporation.
Vertical and Horizontal Integration
Monopoly is a situation in which a single company owns all or nearly all of the market for a given type of product or service.
The film industry consists of the technological and commercial institutions of film making.
Thank you for listening!
Usually, but not always, independent
films are made with considerably
lower film budgets than major studio films.
Independent films are often screened at local, national, or international film festivals before distribution.
BBC's Mission Statement