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The Ancient Egyptians

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Stephanie Leahey

on 14 February 2017

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Transcript of The Ancient Egyptians

The Ancient Egyptians
Early Egyptian Life
L.O: To explore the social structure of Egyptian society looking at different social groups.
The Middle Kingdom
The New Kingdom
Main Idea:
Egypt acquired new territory and reached the height of it´s power.
L.O. To explore in detail the Kingdom and Empire of Ancient Egypt.
Egypt´s Social Classes:
Upper class made up of nobles, priests, government officials.
Lived in cities and in big houses along the Nile River.
Homes made of wood and mud bricks with beautiful gardens and pools filled with fish.
Wealthy families had servants.
The men and women dressed in white linen clothes and wore heavy eye makeup and jewellery.
UPPER CLASS
Early Egyptian Life
L.O: To explore the social structure of Egyptian society looking at different social groups.
Egypt´s Social Classes:
People who ran businesses or produced goods.
MIDDLE CLASS
Lived in smaller houses and dressed more simply.
Artisans produced linen, jewellery, pottery and metal goods.
LOWER CLASS
Farmers were the largest group of people.
Lived in one room huts along the Nile RIver.
Simple diet of bread, beer, vegetables, and fruit.
Rented their land from nobles giving a large portion of their crops.
Or they worked the land of wealthy nobles.
Early Egyptian Life
L.O: To explore the social structure of Egyptian society looking at different social groups.
Egypt´s Social Classes:
Many of Egypt´s city dwellers were unskilled workers.
LOWEST CLASS
Lots of heavy lifting and manual labour.
Workers lived in crowded city neighbourhoods.
Small brick homes with dirt floors and a courtyard for the animals.
Flat rooftops where families socialised, women dried fruit, made bread and weaved cloth.
Hieroglyphics Poster
Main Idea:
The Middle Kingdom was a golden age of peace, prosperity, and advances in the arts and architecture.
About 2300 B.C.E the pharaohs lost control of Egypt as nobles battled one another for power.
Almost 200 years of confusion followed and a new dynasty of pharaohs came to power and restored order.
The Middle Kingdom lasted from about 2050 B.C.E to 1670 B.C.E. and was a golden age for Egyptians.
More land:
Egypt took control of new lands.
Conquered people sent tributes to the Egyptian Pharaohs, enriching the kingdom.
They added more waterways and dams and increased the amount of land being farmed.
The Arts Blossomed
Arts, literature and architecture thrived
Painters covered the temples with colourful scenes of the deities.
Sculptures showed the pharaohs as ordinary people rather than godlike.
Poets wrote love songs to the pharaohs.
Instead of pyramids pharaohs were buried in the valley of the kings.
The hyksos
The Middle Kingdom came to an end in 1670 B.C.E when the people known as the Hyksos attacked Egypt.
The Hyksos were mighty warriors.
They crossed the desert on horse-drawn chariots.
They had superior weapons to the Egyptians and the Egyptians were no match for the invaders.
The Hyksos ruled Egypt for about 120 years
Then around 1550 B.C.E an Egyptian prince named Ahmose led an uprising.
They drove the Hyksos out of Egypt.
Ahmose´s reign in Egypt began a period known as the New kingdom.
During this time, from about 1550 B.C.E to 1080 B.C.E, Egypt reached the height of its ancient glory.
And then came a female ruler Dun dun dUURRRRR ....
About 1473 B.C.E a queen named Hatsheput came to power in Egypt.
She ruled first with her husband and then, after his death, on behalf of her young nephew. Finally she made herself pharaoh.
Hatshepsut became one of the few women to rule Egypt.
She was more interested in trade than conquest.
During her reign, Egyptian traders sailed along the east coast of Africa.
The exchanged beads, metal tools, and weapons for gold, ivory, ebony and incense.
Hatshepsut
Trading brought great wealth to Egypt.
Hatshepsut used some of this wealth to build monuments.
One of her greatest projects was a huge temple and tomb in the limestone cliffs of the Valley of the Kings.
When Hatshepsut died her nephew Thutmose III became pharaoh.
His armies expanded the empire gaining control of Mesopotamia and Nubia.
Thutmose´s empire grew rich from trade and tribute.
They also enslaved many prisoners of war who were put to work rebuilding the city of Thebes.
They filled the city with beautiful palaces, temples, and monuments.
Slavery was not common previously in Egypt but in the New Kingdom it gained in popularity.
Slaves could own land, marry and eventually be granted their freedom.
The Legacies of Two Pharaohs
Akhenaton:
This pharaoh realised that Egypt´s priests were gaining power at the expense of the pharaohs.
To maintain his power he introduced a new religion that removed the old gods and replaced it with one god, Aton.
When the priests resisted he removed them also , seized their lands and closed temples.
Many Egyptians did not accept the new religion.
Meanwhile Akhenaton became so devoted to his new religion that he neglected his duties as pharaoh and lost much of the empire.
Tutankhamen:
The Boy King
Became a pharaoh at 10 years old.
Restored the old religion.
Ruled for 9 years.
Died unexpectedly.
He may have been ill, or been murdered.
He only played a small role in Egypt´s history.
Famous because of his tomb.
Discovered by Howard Carter in 1922 C.E.
The only royal tomb not to be robbed.
The End of the New Kingdom
Main Idea:
Under Ramses II, Egypt regained territory and built great temples, but the empire fell by 1150 B.C.E.
Ramses II reigned for a remarkable 66 years from 1279 B.C.E - 1213 B.C.E.
Egyptian armies regained lands in Western Asia and rebuilt the empire.
He also launched an ambitious building program, constructing several new temples.
https://drive.google.com/open?id=0B_srz3tNH1r1czZoTDZSLUF5dFk
Many of the temples were built by enslaved people captured in war.
The most magnificent was Karnak at Thebes.
Unlike modern religious buildings, Egyptian temples did not hold services, they believed that the gods and goddesses lived in the temples.
Instead they prayed at home.
The temples also served as banks.
Egyptians used them to store valuable items.
Full transcript