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Realism vs Liberalism

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by

Gihyeon Belle Jang

on 16 September 2014

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Transcript of Realism vs Liberalism

Classical Liberalism
Disagreements among liberals
Classical/economic Liberals
Collective Security
States are
rational actors
so if they see incentives to
cooperate
they will do so
→ International cooperation is mostly "
mutually beneficial
" as each state
somehow obtain "
absolute gains
"
ex) NATO
Classical Realism
Classical vs Structural Realism
Classical Realist (Morgenthau)
REALISM
LIBERALISM
Theory
Realism vs Liberalism
THANK YOU!
201102959 Gihyeon Jang (DIS)
"a kind of simplifying device that allows you to decide which facts matter and which do not"
"a specific set of lenses to look at the world"
1 "
the war of all against all
"
Humans are violent, conflictual
→ state consists of individuals so it's also self-interested, power-seeking to survive

2 Anarchy = lack of central gov't in int'l society (≠chaos)
3S
Statism

= main actors in IR are

states

Survival
= ensuring its own survival and perpetuating their existence


Power
is crucial to achieve national
security

so states will engage in power-maximising behaviour, particularly
military capabilities
.

Self-help

= Each state has to defend by themselves and is responsible for its well-being and survival


How? by acting in the

national interests

States can ally with others when concerned with their interests.


Balance of Power

Criticism
On war
*War ≠ natural condition
*Peace
*National interests safeguarded by more than military means

⇒ The international system is anarchical yet
cooperation
can be developed by each state focusing on
absolute gains
On governance
On human nature
*Human beings perfectible
*Human rationality
*Belief in progress

⇒ As human beings are essentially
cooperative
;
States' cooperation is possible in global level as well
The Liberal Tradition
*Democracy
*States + IOs, NGOs, MNCs etc
*Interdependence

⇒ "
domestication of the international
"
extending the ideas inside liberal states to the int'l realm
∴ a central world gov't

Interdependence ←
international trades

small gov't

no intervention
in domestic economy
(self-regulating market)
+
More intervention in non-liberal states to change them into democracy/capitalism style
Keynesian/political Liberals
welfare states, helpful gov't
involvement in domestic economy
+
Less intervention in non-liberal states
let them choose their own system
Apart from universal value, local variation could exist
Criticism
Structural Realist (Waltz)
vs
"As
human nature
itself is selfish, world politics results in anarchy"
"The
structure
of the international system"
Anarchical,
balance of power
structure shapes state actions
Power ⇒
relational/relative
concept
impossible to measure
Neglecting non-state actors

collective global problems
ex) environment, human rights
State actions

no limits
in the name of necessity
Ethnocentric
(American, British)
⇒ democracy/capitalism
"
Liberalism of privilege
"
⇒ strong democratic states
Current liberal order = unresponsive to the needs of weaker states

Always choose rational choice

insufficient
information,
interdependent
decision
Full transcript