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The Skeletal System

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Emma Annett

on 14 January 2013

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Transcript of The Skeletal System

The Skeletal System The Skeletal
System By; Emma. Lynn, and Aurora What are the functions of the skeletal system? The skeletal system has many functions, all which help to keep the body up and running. The skeletal system is used for support because it is the framework of the body; it supports the softer tissues and provides points of attachment for most skeletal muscles. The skeleton also provides mechanical protection for many of the body's internal organs, reducing risk of injury to them. For example, cranial bones protect the brain, vertebrae protect the spinal cord, and the ribcage protects the heart and lungs. The skeletal system even assists in movement since the skeletal muscles are attached to bones, therefore when the associated muscles contract they cause bones to move. As surprising as this may be, the bones are also used as to store minerals and chemical energy. Bone tissues store several minerals, including calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P). When required, bone releases minerals into the blood - facilitating the balance of minerals in the body. The chemical energy (very important chemical energy shall I add) stored in bones is made when the ‘red bone marrow’ ages and turns into ‘yellow bone marrow’, which mainly consists of adipose cells and a few blood cells. The final function of the skeletal system is production of blood cells, which are made inside the ‘red bone marrow’ of some of the larger bones, like the femur. So as you can see, the skeletal system is a vital part in the human body. What is the growth, formation and repair of bone? What is the role of cartilage in the skeletal system from the point of view of stages in the life of an individual ie. embryos through to adults? Adult bones actually continues to expand, although very slowly. Bones also continually undergoes remodeling, replacing old bones with new bones. Ordinary activity causes microscopic cracks in the bones, and these are dissolved and replaced with new bones. Remodeling also allows bones to respond to changes in the body. Thus, living bones are totally different from the skeleton in the closet. An infant’s bones are mostly made up of cartilage, and as they grow up the cartilage bones fuse and harden through a process called ossification. What are the following kinds of joints: ball and socket, hinge, pivot, gliding and suture with examples? Hinge- joint allows movement of the part of body in one direction up or down but not sideways. Examples of these hinge-joints are knee-joint, elbow-joint, and movement of the lower jaw.
Pivot joint: this kind of joint permits pivotal movement of the parts of body that is joined. Movement of the skull is an example. A person can turn his/her head from one side to the other by rotating the skull, which is joined to the backbone at its top in such a way that a pivotal movement is possible.
Ball and socket joints are capable of making an all-round movement up and down and sideways. The leg can be moved in any direction, sideways, up and down
Gliding joint is an example of this kind of joint is the movement of the wrist. At the wrist there are a number of small boned which glide one over the other, when we turn our palm upwards or downwards. Bill Nye The Science Guy
The Skeletal System;Joints Enjoy this brief video about a few different types of joints, as well as a few interesting facts about muscles and bones. What is one disorder of the skeletal system? 7. One illness of the skeletal system is Bursitis. Bursitis is the inflammation of one (or more) of the bodies 106 bursa; which are fluid filled sacs that act as a sliding surface to reduce friction between joints and tissues. Bursitis can occur from injury, infection or an underlying rheumatic condition. The amount of inflammation and spot where the bursitis occurred, changes the symptoms but the most usual symptom is pain. To treat uninfected bursitis; ice, rest, anti-inflammatory/pain medications and in some cases aspiration of the bursa fluid or a cortisone injection. To treat infected bursitis, the fluid may be sent to a lab to determine the reason of infection, but normally infected bursitis requires; antibiotic therapy, repeated aspiration of the bursa fluid or perhaps surgery drainage or even removal of the infected bursa. What is the chemical composition of bone? Bones are made up of connective tissue mostly composed of an organic protein; collagen and the inorganic mineral hydroxyapatite. What are the major bones in the human skeleton and how many bones are there? There are 206 bones in an normal adult skeleton and about 300 in an infants. The difference comes from the fact the some bones fuse over time into a single bone. For example, an infant’s paired frontal and occipital plates fuse to create a single skull, crainium. There are: 22 Cranial and Facial Bones (major bones being the cranium/skull and mandible/lower jaw), 6 Ear Bones, 1 Throat Bone, 4 Shoulder Bones, 25 Chest Bones (major bones being the sternum/breast bone and ribs), 26 Vertebral Bones (major bone being the vertebral column/spine), 6 Arm and Forearm bones (major bone being the fibulae), 54 Hand Bones, 2 Pelvic Bones (major bone being the pelvic girdle/pelvis), 8 Leg Bones (major bones being the patella /knee cap and femurs) and last but not least 52 Foot Bones
(with the major bone being the phalanges). Here are some of the bones in the human skeletal system, most of which are described on the previous question. Vocabulary: Part 1 APPENDICULAR SKELETON
The part of the skeleton that includes the pectoral girdle and the pelvic girdle and the upper and lower limbs.
The part of the skeleton that includes the skull and spinal column and sternum and ribs.
Painful inflammation and stiffness of the joints.
The study of bones.
An internal skeleton, such as the bony or cartilaginous skeleton of vertebrates.
A short band of tough, flexible, fibrous connective tissue that connects two bones or cartilages or holds together a joint.
A flexible but inelastic cord of strong fibrous collagen tissue attaching a muscle to a bone.
A dense layer of vascular connective tissue enveloping the bones except at the surfaces of the joints. Vocabulary: Part 2 HAVERSIAN CANALS
any of the many tiny canals that contain blood vessels and connective tissue and that form a network in bone.
A soft fatty substance in the cavities of bones, in which blood cells are produced (often taken as typifying strength and vitality).
the developmental process of bone formation.
the site of junction or union between bones, especially one that allows motion of the bones.
synovia: viscid lubricating fluid secreted by the membrane lining joints and tendon sheaths etc..
Firm, whitish, flexible connective tissue found in various forms in the larynx, in the external ear, and in the articulating surfaces of joints
A bone cell, formed when an osteoblast becomes embedded in the matrix it has secreted.
A large multinucleate bone cell that absorbs bone tissue during growth and healing.
A cell that secretes the matrix for bone formation. This is what Bursistis in the shoulder looks like. Here is growing skeleton. The skeleton to the right has more cartilage and bones than the skeleton to the right. Thanks for Watching!
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