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Brain Anatomy

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Victor Micallef

on 18 March 2015

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Transcript of Brain Anatomy

Brain Anatomy
2% of the body weight,
neonates - 350-400 g
adults - 1300 – 1400 g
25% of total body glucose utilization
20% of total body oxygen consumption
15% of the cardiac output
2 types of cells

neurons
glial cells
responsible for sending and receiving nerve impulses
provide support and nutrition
maintain homoeostasis
form myalin
50:1
Meninges
3 layers between skull and brain
dura mater
arachnoid mater
pia mater
midbrain
pons
medulla oblongata
ocular motion
coordination of eyes and facial movements, facial sensation, hearing, balance
controls breathing, blood pressure, heart rhythm, swallowing
choroid plexus
Ventricles

3rd ventricle connects with the 4th ventricle through the aqueduct of Sylvius
3rd ventricle is in the center of the brain and the thalamus and hypothalamus make up its walls
The 2 ventricles in the cerebral hemispheres are called the lateral ventricles (1st and 2nd ventricles)
connected to 3rd ventricle through the foramen of Munro
4 cavities (ventricles)
connected by holes (foremen)
Cerebellum

at the back and underneath the occipital lobes
separated from cerebrum by the tentorium
fine tunes motor activity and movement
helps maintain posture
balance and equilibrium
important in ability to perform rapid repetitive actions
left right not inverted in the body like cerebrum
left and right hemispheres
Cerebrum
joined at the corpus callosum
separated by the great longitudinal fissure
Beneath the cerebral cortex is the white matter which is made up of connecting fiber between neurons
The bulges between the grooves are called gyri.
Cerebral cortex has sulci (grooves) and fissures (larger grooves).
Cerebral cortex appears greyish brow and is called the 'grey matter'
Surface of cerebrum has billions of neurons and glia that together form the cerebral cortex
the cerebral hemispheres are divided into pairs of lobes
Cranial nerves
12 pairs of nerves originating from brain itself
responsible for specific activities
Sensory
Olfaction
Sensory
Vision
Motor
Eye movement
Parasympathetic
pupillary constriction and accomodation
Sensory
Face, scalp, cornea, nasal and oral cavities, cranial dura mater (general sensation)
Motor
mastication muscles
tension of tympanic membrane
sensory
motor
parasympathetic
anterior 2/3 of tongue (taste)
facial expressions
salivary and lacrimal glands
sensory
cochlea (hearing)
vestibular apparatus (balance)
sensory
motor
parasympathetic
general sensation
taste (posterior 1/3 of tongue)
baroreception
swallowing
salivation
sensory
motor
parasympathetic
general sensation
baroreception
visceral sensation
speech, swallowing
control of cardiovascular, respiratory and gastrointestinal systems
motor
movement of head and shoulders
(sternomastoid, trapezius muscles)
motor
tongue movements
Hypothalamus
Controls functions such as
eating
sexual behavior
sleeping
body temperature
emotions
The Lobes
motor skills
voluntary movement
speech
intellectual / behavior functions
Primary motor cortex
or
precentral gyrus

the primary motor cortex is the area of the brain that produce movement in parts of the body
important for memory, intelligence, concentration, temper and personality
premotor cortex -
guides eye and head movement and gives the sense of orientation
broca's area
language production
usually on left side
enable humans to receive and process visual information.
reversed left/right
influence how humans process colors and shapes.
interpret signals received from other areas such as vision, hearing, motor, sensory and memory.
the new sensory information received together with a person's memory give meaning to objects.
Temporal lobes
The rear of the temporal lobe enables humans to interpret other people’s emotions and reactions.
An area on the left side is involved in verbal memory and helps humans remember and understand language.
An area on the right side is involved in visual memory and helps humans recognize objects and peoples' faces.
One part is on the bottom (ventral) of each hemisphere, and the other part is on the side (lateral) of each hemisphere.
These lobes are located on each side of the brain at about ear level, and can be divided into two parts.
This system is involved in emotions.

Limbic System
amygdala (active in producing aggressive behaviour) and
hippocampus (plays a role in the ability to remember new information).
Included in this system are the hypothalamus, part of the thalamus,
thalamus
Acts as a relay between a variety of subcortical areas and the cerebral cortex.

Every sensory system (with the exception of the olfactory system) includes a thalamic nucleus that receives sensory signals and sends them to the associated primary cortical area.
A switchboard of information.
CIRCULATION
electrically insulating material
forms the myelin sheath around the axon of a neuron,
dentrite
nucleus
Myelin sheat
Axon
node of Ranvier
axon terminal
Schwann cell
soma
Arterial
Venous
Anterior
Posterior
Supplied by 2 pairs of arteries
Internal Carotids
Vertebral
Connected via posterior communicating arteries
(bilateral)
Circle of Willis
Circle of Willis provides interconnections between the anterior and the posterior cerebral circulation along the floor of the cerebral vault, providing blood to tissues that would otherwise become ischemic.

The anterior cerebral circulation is the blood supply to the anterior portion of the brain.
Anterior cerebral circulation
Connects both anterior cerebral arteries, within and along the floor of the cerebral vault.
The posterior cerebral circulation is the blood supply to the posterior portion of the brain, including the occipital lobes, cerebellum and brainstem.
Posterior cerebral circulation
Internal carotid arteries:
The internal carotid artery branches into the anterior cerebral artery and continues to form the middle cerebral artery
These large arteries are the left and right branches of the common carotid arteries in the neck which enter the skull, as opposed to the external carotid branches which supply the facial tissues.
It is supplied by the following arteries:
Anterior communicating artery:
Middle Cerbral ARTERY
Within the cranium the two vertebral arteries fuse into the basilar artery.
These smaller arteries branch from the subclavian arteries which primarily supply the shoulders, lateral chest and arms.
It is supplied by the following arteries:
Vertebral arteries:
pOSTERIOR iNFERIOR CEREBELLAR ARTERY
BASILAR ARTERY
Supplies the midbrain and cerebellum
posterior cerebral artery
posterior communicating artery
Superficial
Deep
Dural venous sinuses
walls composed of dura mater
superior sagittal sinus
flow in mid sagital plane from frontal to occipital region.
transverse sinuses
flow laterally in the tentorum cerebelli from the occipital region.
meet at confluence of sinuses
become continuous with the jugular veins
Inferior Sagital sinus
passes backwards to form the straight sinus
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