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propaganda

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by

Christan Reilly

on 27 April 2016

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Transcript of propaganda

Calendar cover,
“A New People 1938,”
Nazi Party Office of Racial Politics
USHMM, source unknown



“A New People”
Nazi Propaganda Practices
Uses derogatory language or words that carry a negative connotation when describing an enemy.

Attempts to arouse prejudice among the public by labeling the target something that the public dislikes.
Name-calling
Uses words that have a positive meaning or connotation, and are linked to highly valued concepts.

Words often used as glittering generalities are: honor, glory, love of country, and freedom
Glittering Generalities
An attempt to make the subject view a certain item in the same way as they view another item.

Used to transfer positive or negative feelings from one object to another.

.
Transfer
An attempt to convince the public that his or her views reflect those of the “common person”.

For example, the candidate tries to appear to be working for the benefit of the “common person”.
Plain Folks
Quotations or endorsements which attempt to connect a well-known or respectable person with a product or ideal with the intent to better “sell” the product or ideal.
Testimonial
An appeal to the subject to follow the crowd.
Tries to convince the subject that one side is the winning side and that winning is inevitable.
Appeals to a person’s desire to be on the winning side.
Bandwagon
1. Name-calling
2. Glittering Generalities
3. Euphemism
4. Transfer
5. Testimonial
6. Plain Folks
7. Fear
8. Bandwagon
9. Scientific Explanation
Common Propaganda Techniques
Wartime poster,
“Germany’s Victory Europe’s Freedom”, 194?
USHMM, source unknown
“Germany’s Victory
Europe’s Freedom”
Please use your corresponding worksheets
with the next set of slides
Modern techniques of propaganda -- including strong images and simple messages -- helped propel Austrian-born Adolf Hitler from being a little known extremist to a leading candidate in the 1932 German presidential elections. The style of this poster is similar to some of film stars of the era. Election poster, 1932; photo by Heinrich Hoffmann



Nazi propaganda idolized Hitler as a gifted statesman who brought stability, created jobs, and restored German greatness

Under the Nazi regime, Germans were expected to pay public allegiance to the “Führer” in quasi-religious forms, such as giving the Nazi salute and greeting others on the street with “Heil Hitler!,” the so-called “German Greeting”


Faith in Hitler strengthened the bonds of national unity, while non-compliance signaled dissension in a society where open criticism of the regime, and its leaders, were grounds for imprisonment


Making a
leader



A cornerstone of Nazi ideology and
propaganda

An organic, racial union
of all “Aryan” Germans

Political strife and dissension have
no place in National Socialist society

Contributing to the general welfare of the nation, not individualism

Nazi propaganda played a crucial role in selling the myth to Germans who longed for unity, national pride and greatness
Volksgemeinschaft:
“National Community”

• Uses truths, half-truths, or lies
• Omits information selectively
• Simplifies complex issues or ideas
• Plays on emotions
• Advertises a cause
• Attacks opponents
• Targets desired audiences
Common Propaganda Traits
Technique that warns of a negative outcome or disaster if the audience doesn't follow a particular course of action.
Fear/Card Stacking
Psychological Warfare and Trickery
Propaganda
Exhibition poster,
“The Eternal Jew,” Munich, 1937
USHMM, courtesy of Julius Goldstein
“The Eternal Jew”
"All of Germany Listens to the Führer with the People's Radio." The poster depicts a crowd surrounding a radio. The radio looms large, symbolizing the mass appeal and broad audience for Nazi broadcasts.
Der Stürmer was the most notorious, antisemitic newspaper in Germany

The newspaper, headed by Julius Streicher, published lurid tales of Jewish “ritual murder,” sex crimes, and financial malfeasance

The Nazis understood the power and attraction of emerging technologies, such as film, loudspeakers, radio, and television, in the service of propaganda

These technologies offered the Nazi leadership a means for mass dissemination of their ideological messages and a vehicle for reinforcing the myth of the National Community through communal listening and viewing experiences
Writing the
News
"Students/Be the Führer's propagandists." With militant appeals to nationalism, freedom, and self-sacrifice, the Nazi Party successfully recruited students disenchanted with German democracy and their current student organizations.
From the 1920s onwards, the Nazi Party targeted German youth as a special audience for its propaganda messages

These messages emphasized that the Party was a movement of youth:
dynamic
resilient
forward-looking
hopeful

Millions of German young people were won over to Nazism in the classroom and through extracurricular activities
Indoctrinating
Youth
"Greater Germany: Yes on 10 April" (1938). This election poster emphasizes the message of jumping on the Nazi political bandwagon, as represented by the hands raised in a unified Nazi salute.


The Nazi Party dramatically increased its public support by advertising itself as a protest movement against the corruption and ineffectiveness of the Weimar “system”

Throughout World War II, Nazi propagandists disguised military aggression aimed at territorial conquest as acts of ethnic self-defense necessary for the survival of “Aryan civilization”


Nazi propaganda frequently stressed the power of a mass movement to propel the country forward, subtly underscored by the upward angle of the hands

This poster typifies the propaganda strategy of using simple confident slogans, with bold graphics often using the characteristic Nazi colors of red, black, and white.
Rallying the
Nation


Deceiving the
Public
An antisemitic poster published in Poland in March 1941. The caption reads, "Jews are lice; They cause typhus." This German-published poster was intended to instill fear of Jews among Christian Poles.



Propaganda served as an important tool to win over the majority of the German public who had not supported Adolf Hitler and to push forward the Nazis' radical program

A new state propaganda apparatus, headed by Joseph Goebbels, sought to manipulate and deceive the German population and the outside world

Propagandists preached an appealing message of national unity and a utopian future
Nazi propaganda often portrayed Jews as engaged in a conspiracy to provoke war. Here, a stereotyped Jew conspires behind the scenes to control the Allied powers, represented by the British, American, and Soviet flags. The caption reads, "Behind the enemy powers: the Jew." Circa 1942.

One crucial factor in creating a cohesive group is to define who is excluded from membership

Nazi propagandists contributed to the regime's policies by publicly identifying groups for exclusion, inciting hatred or cultivating indifference, and justifying their pariah status to the populace

Propaganda helped to define who would be excluded from the new society and justified measures against the “outsiders”:
Jews
Sinti and Roma (Gypsies)
homosexuals
political dissidents
Germans viewed as genetically inferior and harmful to “national health”
Defining the
Enemy
What is Propaganda?
Film from the Steven Spielberg Film Archive showing the Opening of the Official Anti-Semitic Campaign, 1 April 1933. Also in this clip is Minister for Popular Enlightenment and Propaganda, Joseph Goebbels addressing a cheering crowd in Berlin Lustgarten, the boycott of Jewish shops, a truck filled with Nazis moving through streets, chanting: "Germans, protect yourselves. Don't buy from the Jews,“ book burning and more. [00:05:48]
Euphemism
A generally harmless word, name, or phrase that replaces an offensive or suggestive one.
Examples:
In the 1940s the US changed the name of the "War Department" to "The Department of Defense"
The Reagan Administration changed the name of the "X-Missile" to "The Peacekeeper".
What type of propaganda is exhibited in this Fahrenheit 451 inspired public service announcement?
Scientific Explanation
Uses scientific words or phrases as explanation while recognizing the audience has no knowledge of the word.
A propaganda poster reminding people not to discuss information critical to national security.
The use of persuasive techniques to influence human behavior.
A is for Atom, 1953, sponsored by the General Electric Co., explains how the atom works and what makes uranium so special (it can be used for the good of mankind)
Full transcript