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Section 12.3

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by

Sherifa Amin

on 1 March 2014

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Transcript of Section 12.3

Foreign Trade
Trade increased under Kublai Khan
Because of Pax Mongolica, trade routes were secure
China exported gunpowder, paper, the compass and playing cards
Kubali Khan invited foreign merchants to visit China
They came from India, Central Asia, Persia & Europe
One of them was...
Marco Polo
Venetian trader
Traveled via the Silk Roads to China around 1275
Spoke several Asian languages
Worked for Kublai Khan, was sent on government missions
The End of Mongol Rule
A Problem That Kublai Khan faced
"I have heard that one can conquer the empire on horseback, but one cannot govern it on horseback"

-Mongol ways would not work on a sophisticated civilization like China
Pax Mongolica,
Trade & the Silk Road
Section 12.3
The Mongol Empire

The Mongols & The Chinese
Little in common; different identities
Lived away from each other
Obeyed different laws
Only Mongols could reach high government positions
Pax Mongolica
"Mongol Peace"
1200s-1300s
Stability/law/order
Safe passage for trade caravans & travelers
Goods, inventions + ideas
The plague
Significance of Yuan Dynasty in Chinese history
1) Kublai Khan united China for the first time in 300 years

2) Gave China access to foreign trade

3) Kublai Khan tolerated Chinese culture & made few changes to system of government
p. 204
(Bigger picture: all of the Mongol Empire)
(Zooming in on the Yuan Dynasty)
"Primary Source" & "History Makers" boxes on page 337
(1) The Collapse of the Yuan Dynasty
The last years of Kublai Khan's rule
-Attempts to expand were unsuccessful
-Armies & navies suffered defeats
-Huge loss of lives & equipment
-China was facing financial problems
-High taxes on the Chinese
-Heavy spending on wars
-Spending on luxuries (ex: palaces)
(1) Collapse of the Yuan Dynasty (continued)
After Kublai Khan died in 1294:
-His successors could not solve these problems
-Family members fought over who would rule
(Four emperors in 8 years!)
-Dynasty experienced chaos, famine, floods, diseases, economic problems & corruption
-Successors treated the Chinese badly
-Rebellions started by the Chinese against their Mongol rulers
-Succeeded in 1368
-Ming Dynasty created
(2) Decline of the Mongol Empire
1. Ilkhanate in Persia fell apart in the 1330s
2. Chagatai ruled Central Asia till the 1370s
3. The Golden Horde ruled Russia until 1480
Full transcript