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Ten Criteria of the Ancient Civilizations

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Linna Cui

on 14 December 2014

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Transcript of Ten Criteria of the Ancient Civilizations

Ten Criteria and Themes of World Cultures of the Ancient Civilizations
Sumer, Babylonia, and Assyria
Linna Cui

What are the Ten Criteria and Themes of World Cultures?
Ten Criteria:
1. Trade over long distances
2. Development of Art
3. Ranking of Social Positions
4. Producing and storing surplus food
5. Large populated settlements
6. Large Public Buildings
7. Beginning of Science
8. Beginning of Government
9. System of Writing
10. Variety of Jobs
Sumer
Ten Criteria:
1.

Trade over long distances--- The ancient Sumerians had trading ships that sailed to lands bordering the Persian Gulf to obtain ivory and other luxury items.
2.
Development of art--- They had craft workers and architectures building magnificent temples. They were skilled in metalwork and stonework.
3.
Ranking of Social Positions--- The gods were divided into the An and Ninhursag first, Annunaki second, Igigi third, and Humans last.
4.
Producing and storing surplus food--- They were farmers and depended on raising crops. They used irrigation for water to water their crops.
5.
Large populated settlements--- They lived in large cities and had city- states, which were cities combined with the surrounding farmland.
Babylonia
Ten Criteria:
1.
Trade over long distances--- They sell the straw and frames from the boat when they have used the boat to sell cargo.
2.
Large public buildings--- Babylon had temples, a palace of kings, fortresses, a sacred precinct, and there is a statue housed in a great temple.
3.
Development of an Art Style--- The temples had brass gates, richly adorned couches, and a gold table, and there is a tower of solid masonry.
4.
Beginning of Science--- The ancient Babylonians created boats, made of skins rather than wood to break apart, because the current is too strong to allow a boat to return up-stream. They sell the remains of the boat, then build fresh boats for the next voyage.
5.

Ranking of Social Positions--- The king of Babylon, Cyrus, appointed a prince and in his will, he gave all of his spoils and treasures to the prince, his son.
Sumer (continued)
6.
Large public buildings--- They had ziggurats, where the priests would analyze the signals of the gods and attend to their needs.
7.
Beginning of Science--- They developed a 360 day calendar and a clock based on astronomical observations.
8.
Beginning of a Government--- They had city-states that were ruled by one ruler each.
9.
System of Writing--- They used a writing system called cuneiform with wet clay tablets.
10.
Variety of Jobs--- There were craft workers, architechtures, farmers, priests, and textile workers.
Sumer (continued)
5 Themes of World Cultures:

1.
The physical world changes cultures and cultures change the physical world.
observations made about the cycles of the moon helped farmers to calculate the advanced seasons
developed in a region with little rainfall
rivers provided water for irrigation
migrated from the Tigris and Euphrates rivers
depended on waters to support their crops
2.
Cultures meet and exchange ideas and goods.
Sumerian trade ships traded for ivory and other luxury items
3.

Cultures struggle with tradition and change.
Sumerian language stopped being spoken at about 2000 B.C.
more powerful city-states conquered their neighbors
4.

Cultures gain, use, and lose power.
Sargon of Akkad ruled Sumer for about 150 years
more powerful city-states conquered their neighbors
trade for tin and copper fostered native industries and political unification
a dozen principal cities rose, and scholars estimate that up to 80% of the people of Sumer lived in cities
5.

Cultures address scarcity in a variety of ways.
developed in an area with little rainfall
woolen textiles were one of the region's few exports
scarcity of Sumerian language after 2000 B.C.
5 Themes of World Cultures
1. The physical world changes cultures and cultures change the physical world.
2. Cultures meet and exchange ideas and goods.
3. Cultures struggle with tradition and change.
4. Cultures gain, use, and lose power over time.
5. Cultures address scarcity in a variety of ways.
Babylonia (continued)
6.
Beginning of a Government--- Cyrus took over all of Babylon when he took away their god's temple, therefore taking away their god-they kissed his feet and bowed down to him.
7.
Producing and storing surplus food--- Babylon was fruitful and the palm trees there produced bread, wine, and honey. Gall-fly entered the dates and ripened them.
8.
System of Writing--- They used Akkadian and Sumerian in written documents and their ancient name, Babil, may well be in an unknown language that predates Sumerian and Akkadian in Mesopotamia.
9.
Large populated settlements--- From the picture-there were a vast number of people in the army in Jerusalem-and there were a vast number of great cities in ancient Babylonia.
10.
Variety of Jobs--- There were nobles and high priests, mesopotamian scribes, and builders to build to protective barrier around the city.
Why have it?
The ten criteria is a set of guidelines for each civilization to follow, and for it to be a civilization, it has to meet the guidelines for at least 7 of the 10 criteria. These 3 ancient civilizations have reached the goal of meeting all ten of the criteria. The themes of world cultures were also mentioned, and its purpose was to describe the human and physical characteristics of that region. Sumer, Babylon, and Assyria described all of these, concluding that they were advanced civilizations at that time.
Babylonia (continued)
5 Themes of World Cultures:
1.

The physical world changes cultures and cultures change the physical world.
Palm trees supply them with bread, wine, and honey
Nineveh formed on the Tigris river
No other place so fruitful in grain
The city is divided into 2 portions by the river
Irrigation from the river supplies water for the growth of corn
Settled in a river valley
2.

Cultures meet and exchange ideas and goods.
They give a sick person recommended ideas about how to treat himself; he is placed in the public square and the passers-by who have had the disease or have known anyone who has suffered from it give him advice for what ails him
3.

Cultures struggle with tradition and change.
Babylon corruptly went to sin
Their progress the gods impeded when the people did things that were against the god's wishes
He made their speech strange
Cyrus took away Babylon's gods in order to take control of them
4.

Cultures gain, use, and lose power over time.
Cyrus appointed a prince, his son
He conquered the men of black heads, the country of Quti, and all of the people of Manda
Nobles and high priests bowed down to him and kissed his feet
Consolidating control over surrounding lands
5.

Cultures address scarcity in a variety of ways.
Babylon has no physicians
Very little rain falls in Babylon
Assyria
Ten Criteria:
1.
Trade over long distances--- Sent to the city of Nineveh were riches, spoil, ivory, buffalo teeth and skin, wood, and a treasure of every kind.
2.

Development of Art--- The Assyrians had stone reliefs that they could carve into, describing their battles and victories.
3.
Ranking of social positions--- Ashur the god was at the top of the hierarchy, followed by Sennacherib the king, his noblemen, soldiers, priests, and the prisoners that he captured during war.
4.
Producing and storing surplus food--- They had flour mills, run by water wheels.
5.
Large populated settlements--- There were strong cities; Nimrud and Nineveh.
Assyria (continued)
6.

Large public buildings--- Assyria had decorated palaces, the former palace, which had adjoined the gardens of the Great Tower, and adjoining the watchtower of the house of worship and the temple of Ishtar.
7.
Beginnings of Science--- Sennacherib skillfully constructed water-wheels to obtain water to run the flour mills, and he made a new channel for the river Tibilti.
8.
Beginning of Government--- Protecting the government was a military, as shown in the picture of the stone relief where there were archers with bows and arrows.
9.

System of Writing--- They had cuneiform on tablets, now in the British Museum, and the hexagonal clay prism on which they translated "Annals of Sennacherib" had a form of writing on it.
10.
Variety of Jobs--- Chief priests, soldiers, archers, workmen, and builders were all jobs in Assyria.
Assyria (continued)
Themes of World Cultures:
1.
The physical world changes cultures and cultures change the physical world.
Sennacherib made a new channel for the river Tibilti and he regulated its water and retrained its flow; he walled up its stream
Buildings were made of dan wood, ivory, ku wood, meshukan wood, cedar wood, cypress wood, and pistachio wood
He planted trees around his royal residence
He caused the uprisings of springs in more than forty places in the plain and divided them into irrigating canals for the people of Nineveh
2.
Cultures meet and exchange ideas and goods.
In the course of his expedition he received the great tribute of gold, silver, mesukan wood, mules, camels, oxen, and sheep
3.
Cultures struggle with tradition and change.
Sennacherib assaulted, captured, and carried off the spoils of many different towns, cities, and lands
He burnt with fire and left the Hall of Assembly in ruins
There were two great plagues under Asshur-edil-ilani the second
4.
Cultures gain, use, and lose power over time.
The kings of many cities presented presents and wealth to his presence and kissed his feet
The cities of Altaku and Tamna Sennacherib captured and carried off their spoil
He believed that Ashur the god had given him an unrivalled monarchy
He completely conquered many tribes
He established the city of Ilinzash
Assyria was brought down by being pillaged and burned to the ground
5.
Cultures address scarcity in a variety of ways.
No irrigation canals from the river to the city before Sennacherib built them
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