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Ethnic Conflict in Lebanon

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Ansley Carver

on 17 January 2013

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Transcript of Ethnic Conflict in Lebanon

Root of the Conflict People Affected Lebanon neighbors two countries (Syria and Israel) that have very large conflicting views and Lebanon is right in the middle of it. religious tension The tension have occurred for quite some time. The religious fractions fighting began in the 1970's and has continued to happen ever since. Syrian Military troops have been in Lebanon from 1976-2005 and there is still tension and uncertainty about the borders between the two states. Recent warfare between Israel and Lebanon regarding Hezbollah broke out in 2006. The civil war in Lebanon was from 1975-1990s. A large amount of open violence and conflict in Lebanon occurred in the 70s to 90s and now tensions resulting from the warfare has become the predominant ethnic conflict across the Lebanon cultural landscape. Ethnic Conflict in Lebanon Manifestations of the Conflict Violence imploded in Lebanon in 1975, beginning the civil war. It is estimated that up to 200,000 people were killed and up to a million people were displaced, internally and internationally. Many Lebanese cities are in ruins as a result of the war.

After the Civil War, violent attempts of communities to enhance their share of power have erupted.

syria, Israel, and the USA sent troops into Lebanon to restore peace at various times. This resulted in the death of 150,000 Lebanese and 241 US marines in the fighting that took place in 1983. Sources Ansley Carver
Ali Johnson Syrian Dominance How long there has been tension and conflict Spatial Extent of the Conflict After getting independence in 1943, the 'National Pact' required a representations of the religions by percentage from the 1932 census in the Chamber of Deputies. Christians were once a majority so government is based off of that (president-Maronite {Christian}, prime minister {sunni}, speaker of parliament {shia}). Times have changed though and currently it is estimated that Lebanon is 60% Muslim, 30% Christian, and 10% other. As Muslims grow in influence they wish to gain power and be acknowledged in the government structure but others do not want any change. Civil War 1975-1990s
Israel, Syria and the Palestine Liberation Organization used Lebanon to fight out their own conflicts, forcing the war to become unpredictable and on going. It ended with the ‘National Reconciliation Accord’ or Ta’if Agreement in November 1989. The accord legitimized Syrian forces in the country, present since 1976, re-adjusted the distribution of power in favor of Muslims, equaling its representation to Christians, and permitted the Shiite Hezbollah militia to maintain its armed forces. The Syrian government had 29 years of military presence in Lebanon. It ended in 2005 when Syria was blamed for the assassination of the former prime minister Rafik Hariri in Beirut. A large division between Syrian support and Syrian opposition soon manifested. This led to the 'Cedar Revolution' and caused the Syrian military to leave Lebanon. Other Military presence in Lebanon has been banned by the UN. The US supports the UN in these bans due to the US ambition to promote independence (Lebanon won independence in 1943) and believes that Lebanon is the key to better Middle East relations with fewer ethnic tensions. Syria and Lebanon continue to have a strained relationship. The Current Syrian Civil War has threatened Lebanon's fragile political stability as the war overflows into Lebanese territory. Much of Lebanon continues to be controlled by Syria. Lebanon has no documentation of their border so the line between Syria and Lebanon is unclear. Boundaries between Lebanon and Israel also remain unclear as Lebanon lays claim to Shab'a Farms, which is in the Israeli- occupied Golan Heights. Spatial Extent Internationally The country is only 10,000 square kilometers and holds 4 million people and therefore the closed quarters magnify the potential for conflict.

The different religions tend to be clustered in certain locations. Maronites are clustered in the west coastal area. Sunnis in the northwest and Shiites in the west and south. Even the capital, Beirut is separated into the eastern Christian zone and the Muslim western zone. This divide of the capital in itself explains the tensions between religious groups in Lebanon. War With Israel In 2006 Lebanon and Israel went into a violent dispute over Hezbollah. The conflict between Israel and Syria has caused Lebanon to act as a place to fight for their beliefs. This threatened the fragile peace after the succession of Civil Wars in the state. Got a little confused how you went from lebanon and israel in first sentence to israel and syria in second. Lebanon is a small country bordering both Syria and Israel. It is along the Mediterranean Sea. There is a lot of internal conflict between the religions as they fight for power in the government. External conflict also takes root in Lebanon as its neighbors, Israel and Syria add their own personal conflict to the instability in Lebanon. Internal Conflict arises from opposing views on Syrian authority. The country is also divided by multiple religious groups and their changing dominance in society. The complexities of multi-ethnic societies in the Middle East are extremely prominent in Lebanon. They have influenced Lebanon’s changing and fragmented political structure, and led to a horrible civil war. Tension is still high today and increased by the political motives of its neighboring countries. •Christian
2/3 Maronite
1/6 Eastern orthodox
1/6 Other
2/3 Shiite sects
1/3 Sunni (predominant Muslim sect in the world)
•Druse 7% of population- combines the Christianity and Islam Proportions of Religions Pro and anti Syrian rallies

Bloody, long civil war

violent attacks


international bombing and invasion http://www.insightonconflict.org/conflicts/lebanon/?gclid=CI6exvGK7LQCFY1DMgodQ28Asw




An Introduction to Human Geography The Cultural Landscape by James M. Rubenstein


1970 religious fighting begins 1975 Civil War Begins
1976 Syrian troops enter Lebanon 2005 Syrian troops leave Lebanon 2006 War breaks out with Israel over Hezbollah 1990 civil war ends
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