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# Descriptive and Inferential Statistics Applications

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on 2 September 2014

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#### Transcript of Descriptive and Inferential Statistics Applications

Descriptive and Inferential Statistics Applications
Introduction
In Statistics we come across two main categories: Descriptive and Inferential Statistics.
Descriptive: Statistics that merely describe the group they belong to.
Inferential: Statistics that are used to draw conclusions about a larger group of people.
We will examine each one in more detail and provide examples.
Inferential Statistics
Inferential Statistics is concerned with making predictions or inferences about a population from observations and analyses of a sample. It is imperative that the sample is representative of the group to which it is being generalized.
Helpful in reaching conclusions that extend beyond the immediate data alone.
They are useful when attempting to infer from the sample data what the population might think.

Microsoft® Excel® Functions
Descriptive Statistic Excel Functions
Inferential Statistics Excel Functions
Example 1
According to our recent poll, 43% of Americans brush their teeth incorrectly.
Example 2
Our research indicates that only 33% of people eat breakfast
Example 1

The class did well on its first exam, with a mean (average) score of 89.5% and a standard deviation of 7.8%.

Example 2
This season, the Brawley High School Soccer Team scored a mean (average) of 2.3 goals per game.
Descriptive Statistics
Descriptive statistics is the term given to the analysis of data that helps describe, show or summarize data in a meaningful way such that, for example, patterns might emerge from the data.
They provide simple summaries about the sample and the measures.
These very useful statistics bring together large amounts of data so they can be presented and comprehended with minimal effort.

September 2, 2014
BSHS 435
Beatriz Zayas

Agenda
Introduction
Variables & Level of Measurement Classification (nominal, ordinal, interval, or ratio).
Descriptive Statistics
Inferential Statistics
Microsoft® Excel® Functions
References
Variables & Level of Measurement Classification
(nominal, ordinal, interval, or ratio)
References
As previously taught variable are an element, feature, or factor that is liable to vary or change with levels of measurement.
Nominal: Gender- Male or Female
Ordinal: Education Experience- Elementary School, High School, Some College, College Graduate
Interval: Annual Income- \$10,000, \$15,000, \$20,000
Ratio: pH levels, enzyme activity, temperature
How Much Water Have You Eaten Today?

Mean 30.3625
Standard Error 11.13259806
Median 9.2
Mode #N/A
Standard Deviation 44.53039224
Sample Variance 1982.955833
Kurtosis 5.715041044
Skewness 2.236594833
Range 167.8
Minimum 0.2
Maximum 168
Sum 485.8
Count 16

56.3
40
115
21.2
56
1.9
0.7
1.6
4.7
13.8
0.2
7.8
38.7
168
82.5
10.6
45.7
1.5
3.8
48.3
Random Sample
13.8
10.6
0.7
38.7
0.2

t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Equal Variances

Variable 1 Variable 2
Mean 33.04444444 38.26363636
Variance 1472.682778 2522.452545
Observations 9 11
Pooled Variance 2055.888204
Hypothesized Mean Difference 0
df 18
t Stat -0.25609796
P(T<=t) one-tail 0.40038956
t Critical one-tail 1.734063592
P(T<=t) two-tail 0.80077912
t Critical two-tail 2.100922037

Hussain, M. (2012). Descriptive statistics--presenting your results I. JPMA. The Journal Of The Pakistan Medical Association, 62(7), 741-743.