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Transcript of Religion
Stronger monarchs--> statutes passed by Parliament in order to check the power of the Church
Royal Divorce--> Conflict between Monarchy and the Pope
The Power of the Church in the Early Middle Ages
Weak monarchs, except for William I
Middle Ages- XIX Century
He was raised as a protestant. During his childhood governed:
a. William I: changed the hierarchical order of the church, replaced Anglo-Saxon clerics with Norman clergymen, gave them lands in reward return for their services to the Crown --> feudal relationship, dual loyalty to the king and to the pope.
b. Henry I: investiture contest, against Anselm, the archbishop of Canterbury, the monarch kept the right to appoint bishops and archbishops, but it was the pope who kept the right to invest them. The clergymen that were landowners had to pay homage to the monarch and to the pope.
c. Henry II: wanted a uniform legal system, but --> independent church courts. He wanted to check the Benefit of Clergy --> constitutions of Clarendom. New archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Becket, refused to accept the constitutions. Henry was angry --> Barons killed Becket --> Henry was forced to give up his constitutions.
d. John Lackland: refused to accept Stephen Langton as the archbishop of Canterbury --> pope excommunicated the king --> surrendered to the pope’s pressure.
a. Economically: landholders
b. Politically: members of the Great Council
c. Socially: members of the aristocracy
d. Culturally: monopoly of education, God-centered society.
Powerful members of the Church
Statute of Mortmain
(Edward I, in 1279): prohibited the grants of lands to the Church except with the express permission of the king.
Statute of Provisors
(Edward III, in 1351) forbade the revenues of English benefices to be sent to the pope.
Statute of Praemunire
(Edward III, in 1353) made it illegal to bring law cases before the papal courts.
to limit the power of the pope over the English Church
Factors within the church:
>pluralism and absenteeism
>the worldliness and greed of the church
>lack of vocation and preparation of the lower ranks of the clergy
>John Wycliffe and the Lollard Movement
Factors outside the church:
>the rise of the lay culture
>the Black Death
against the political power of the pope.
> 100 Years’ War
>the feeling of nationalism
Complex religious movement that had for its object the reform of the Roman Catholic Church and that led to the establishment of the Anglican Church.
Political and social reaction--> power of the Pope and power of the church.
-1529. Act against abuses: affected the economic power of the church.
-1532. Annates Act: forbade the sending of annates Rome.
-1533. Act against appeals: forbade appeals to Rome.
-1534. Act of succession: heirs to the throne--> Anne Boleyn.
Act of supremacy:
the monarch was the head of the church in England.
-1536-39. Act dissolving monasteries: lands were confiscated and sold to the HMC.
-Meant a break with Rome.
-Protestant ideas began to spread independently.
-Monarch--> Head of the Church of England but the country was still catholic.
1549: Act of Uniformity: 1st Book of Common Prayer. The theory of Transubstantiation was not denied but was not mentioned.
1552. Act of Uniformity: 2nd Book of Common Prayer.
-The theory of Transubstantiation was denied.
Church of England: PROTESTANT.
Changes in dogma.
-1559. Act of supremacy: Supreme "Governor" of the Church.
-1559. Act of uniformity: modified the Book of Common Prayer to make it more ambiguous.
-1571. 39 Articles of Religion: defined the doctrines of the Church. Transubstantiation was not denied
-Mid position of the Church of England. To reunite the nation.
The monarch’s and puritans’ interests clashed:
A – The commons insisted on the need to purify the Church.
B - James I aimed at the unity of the church: he expelled puritan ministers who refused to accept the discipline of the Church and thousands of Roman Catholics were fined for recusancy.
-Hampton Court Conference 1604
-The Gunpowder Plot (1605)
-He was a supporter of the Anglican Church, but he was friendly towards Roman Catholics and strongly opposed the Puritanism that pervaded in the House of Commons. He married Henrietta Maria and had secretly promised to relieve the Roman Catholics of their disabilities
-He held Arminian Ideas and refused to deny that Roman Christians were true Christians.
-He pushed through a policy of ritualistic reform in the Church of England.
-In 1633 he appointed William Laud, who persecuted Puritans, as Archbishop of Canterbury.
-War against Spain: Charles I was obliged to summon Parliament to get money, but the debate turned to religion, since the commons demanded the enforcement of the laws against Roman Catholics, the introduction of of measures to promote Puritanism and they expressed their contempt for an Arminian rector Richard Montagu.
-In 1629, the religious issue was again brought up in Parliament. Elliot´s Resolutions: Whoever brought innovations on religion or favoured Popery and Arminianism should be considered capital enemies of the kingdom.
-The King tried to impose in Scotland a new Book of Common Prayer in which Armenian ideas had been introduced. This led to civil war.
-In 1653, Oliver Cromwell was appointed as Lord Protector. Protestant sects would enjoy religious liberty, although it also provided that England would continue to have a national Church, but did not detail its structure or beliefs.
-Cromwell felt that the Church of England should not have any set doctrinal or liturgical position, and that the only religious uniformity enforced by the state should be to ensure that fundamental Christian principles were respected and to ensure the church remained Protestant.
-In March 1654, Cromwell issued an Ordinance establishing a Commission of 38 - commonly referred to as the Triers - which would be responsible for ensuring that candidates presented to benefices in the Church of England met this minimum standard.
The Restoration (1660) Charles II
-The Anglican Church was restored.
-Declaration of Breda (1660): one of its articles declared religious tolerance.
-Clarendom Code: it was a series of articles aimed at attacking the Puritans:
_Act of uniformity
-Puritans (especially Presbiterians) had to either conform or become a non-conformist.
-Two treaties of Dover (1670): in secret Charles II committed himself to restore Roman Catholicism in England.
Declaration of Indulgence (1672): It allowed public worship in licenced chapels for non-conformists and private worship in their homes for Roman Catholics.
Second Anglo Dutch War
1673 Charles revoked the Declaration of Indulgence in order to satisfy Cavaliers in Parliament and, in this way, obtain money for the war against the Dutch.
Test Act (1673): only communicant Anglicans could hold civil or military office under the Crown.
The succession problem
-Charles II´s succesor was his brother James II, an open admitted Roman Catholic. Many who harbored anticatholic feelings were opposed to James II being the next monarch.
-The Popish Plot: rumours spread by Titus Oates claimed that there was a vast underground conspiracy to kill or otherwise get rid of Charles II and install James as his succesor; arbitrary rule was to be brought in and Protestans were to be massacred.
-In 1678, due to the influence of the Popish plot, a second Test Act was passed excluding Catholics and Dissenters from both houses of parliament.
-Opposition because he was a Catholic King continued.
-James was determined to restore the Church of England to the Catholic religion.
-Two Declarations of Indulgency (1687 and 1688): They granted freedom of worship and conscience, but they were mostly aimed at benefiting Catholics.
-He attacked the hierarchies of the Church , the universities and some individual colleges and reintroduced a Court of High Commission under a different name (Ecclesiastical Commision) to use it as an instrument to recatholicize England.
-The case of «the Seven Bishops»
-As a consequence of the revolution settlement, Roman Catholics were excluded from the succession to the throne, and the new monarchs had to swear that they upheld the protestant reformed religion.
-TOLERATION ACT (1689) : No more persecution on the basis of religion. Toleration was achieved but equality on religion was not attained because the Test and Corporation Acts had not been retreated.
-In 1828 the Corporation and Test acts were repealed.
-Emancipation Act (1829):This act admitted Irish and English Roman Catholics to Parliament and to all but a handful of public offices.
-The Universities Test Acts (1871) opened universities to Roman Catholics.