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Section A Revision
Transcript of Section A Revision
Language Audiences Representation Effects debate Classifying Audiences Socio-economic status MAINSTREAMERS - Seek security. Tend to be domestic, conformist, conventional, sentimental - favour value for family brands. Nearly always the largest group.
ASPIRERS - Seek status. Materialistic, acquisitive, orientated to image and appearance, persona and fashion. Attractive packaging more important than contents. Typically younger people, clerical and sales jobs.
SUCCEEDERS - Seek control. Strong goals, confidence, work ethic, and organisation. Supports stability. Brand choice based on self-reward, and quality. Typically higher management and professionals.
RESIGNED - Seeks survival. Rigid and authoritarian values. Interested in the past and tradition. Brand choice stresses safety, familiarity and economy. Typically older people.
EXPLORERS - Seeks discovery. Energy, individualism and experience. Values difference and adventure. Brand choice highlights satisfaction and instant effect. The first to try new brands. Younger demographic - students.
STRUGGLERS - Seeks escape. Alienated and disorganised. Few resources beyond physical skills. Brand choice involves impact and sensation. Buys alcohol, junk food, lottery tickets. D and E demographic.
REFORMERS - Seeks enlightenment. Freedom of restrictions and personal growth. Social awareness and independent judgement. Anti-materialistic but aware of good taste. Has attended higher education and selects products for quality.
Young and Rubicam - Psychographics Hypodermic Syringe
Model Uses and gratifications theory Two-step flow Audience is passive, the media injects the audience with ideas Ideas flow from the mass media to opinion leaders and then to the greater public (Katz & Lazarsfeld 1955). Members of the audience are not passive but take an active role in interpreting and integrating media into their own lives. Blumler (1972) said that we use the media for the following 4 reasons:
Diversion - escaping reality
Personal Relationships - building conversation, the "water cooler" moment.
Personal Identity - making oneself feel better (or worse) by making comparisons with what's in the media.
Surveillance - keeping up to date with news Media products are divided into genres or types in order to minimise risk and predict expenditure in particularly volatile and unpredictable industries. Genre signifiers = horror = Rom Com Hybrid or Mixed Genres Paradigms:
similar aspects of a media text across a genre Iconography:
Refers to signs associated with particular genres Codes & conventions When creating products for a genre, all these aspects are interlinked and can't function without each other Moral Panics - Stanley Cohen Re-presentation of reality
Representation of people, social groups etc.
Representation in the sense of “speaking on behalf of”
Representation of wider ideas, issues, beliefs etc.
4 meanings of representation A process of categorising individuals and groups (dumb blonde, students, traffic wardens, mothers etc.)
Stereotypes Stereotypical traits: strong, lack emotion, single task orientated, heterosexual, trouser wearing, enjoys looking at women, tough jobs, beer drinking, football watching…
Masculine characters: Vincent, Archie (Eastenders), Sharpe, Paddy Macguire (Shameless), Mr Darcy (Pride & Prejudice), Pa Larkin (Darling Buds of May) etc.
Subverting the stereotype: Stuart (Queer as folk), Tony Hill (Wire in the Blood), Christian (Eastenders), Micky (Shameless) etc.
Costume: trousers, suits, jeans, football shirts
Props: pint glass, football etc.
Storylines: affairs, sex, crime, job related etc.
Stereotypical traits – weak, emotional, multi tasking, heterosexual, skirt wearing, make up wearing, enjoys gossiping, clean jobs, wine drinking, chocolate eating, shopping…
Feminine characters – Peggy (Eastenders), Debbie (Shameless), Ma Larkin (Darling Buds of May), Bree (Desperate Housewives), Carrie (Sex & the City)
Subverting the stereotype – Ronnie (Eastenders), Samantha (Sex & the City), Norma (Shameless) etc.
Costume – skirts, blouses, jewellery, high heels etc.
Props – handbag, make up etc.
Storylines – affairs, emotions, family related etc.
Gender Age Ethnicity Disability Sexuality Class Regional identity the villain, who struggles with the hero
the donor, who prepares and/or provides hero with magical agent
the helper, who assists, rescues, solves and/or transfigures the hero
the Princess, a sought-for person (and/or her father), who exists as a goal and often recognizes and marries hero and/or punishes villain
the dispatcher, who sends the hero off
the hero, who departs on a search (seeker-hero), reacts to the donor and weds at end
the false hero (or antihero or usurper), who claims to be the hero, often seeking and reacting like a real hero (ie by trying to marry the princess)
Propp - Morphology of the Folk Tale (1928) Alvarado et al. (1987) Themes in Racial Representations
pitied Tvzetan Todorov's conventional narrative structure has five stages:
1. A state of equilibrium is defined
2. Disruption to the equilibrium by a crisis/action
3. The characters recognition that there has been a disruption, setting goals to resolve problem
4. The characters attempt to repair the disruption
5. Reinstatement to the equilibrium, situation resolved, conclusion announced. Tvzetan Todorov
equilibrium, disequilibrium, new equilibrium Claude Levi-Strauss Binary opposites:
good vs evil
black vs white
boy vs girl
young vs old
protagonist vs antagonist
strong vs weak
first world vs third world
humanity vs technology etc.. You will be asked to discuss your coursework in relation to any one of the five key concepts surrounding this circles.
The examiners aren't asking you to simply regurgitate the theory, but to apply it to the production of your coursework.
For example, are your audience aspirers or succeeders? What kind of binary opposites did you include? SCI-FI WESTERN DRAMADY ROMCOMZOM Pitch Volume Texture Rhythm Symbolic codes Cultural codes Accent Dialect Language register Technical codes Music Sound effects Silence You must be able to relate all of these technical terms to your radio drama and the radio dramas that you have listened to. Narrative types open closed multi-strand linear non-linear Enigma Climax Equilibrium Something in the story is unknown to the cast, audience or both. When it ends, the audience has to guess what happens next. A point in the narrative (usually the end) where everything comes together. It is the point that the product has been leading up to. Also known as Denouement. A point in a narrative where the story is more or less over and all the disruption caused by the enigma and climax has been resolved. Everything returns to normal and all is balanced again.