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Jignesh Mahajan

on 10 February 2015

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Transcript of Copy of DYEING OF BANANA FIBRES

Banana plant

Banana fibre

Chemical composition of banana fibre

Natural dye
Lac dye

Madder dye

Department of Fibres and Textile Processing Technology
Institute Of Chemical Technology, Mumbai( India)

Banana is one of the rhizomatous plants and currently grown in 129 countries around the world.

It is the fourth most important global food crop.

Banana fibre is a cellulosic fibre obtained from pseudo stem of banana plant.

Banana fibre is a bast fibre obtained from waste stalk of banana plant.

The outer sheath is tightly covered by layers of fibre.

The fibre is located primarily adjacent to the outer surface of the sheath and can be peeled- off in ribbons of strips

Banana fibre is extracted from pseudo stem
sheath of the plant. The extraction can be done mainly in three ways: Chemical, Manual and Mechanical.
Chemical Extraction:
It involes prolonged soking in water, then sun drying then treatment with NaOH and washing.

The fibre extracted by mechanical process is of superior qualityin terms of length,
softness, strength and colour.

Manual Extraction
Mechanical Extraction







Natural dyes are basically dyes or colorants derived from natural sources like plants, insects and minerals.
India has a rich biodiversity so wide range of natural coloring raw material is available in India.

Marigold dye

Obatained from marigold plant
Marigold is an ornamental plant. Marigold is a major source of cartenoids and Lutein. Marigold flowers which are yellow to orange are a rich source of Lutein, a cartenoid pigment.

Structure of Lutein

Lac is the scarlet resinuous secretion
of a number of species of lac insects.
Lac dye is based on anthraquinoid type
of structure and composed of laccaic acid
and erthrolaccin.
Laccaic is water soluble compound where
as erythrolaccin is water insoluble compound.
Strucure of laccaic acid

Dye is obtained from roots of the plant.
Indian madder is anthraquinone based
red dye.
The most important colorants in madder
are the anthraquinones, alizarin,
purpuroxanthin, rubiadin, manjistin,
purpurin, pseduopurpurin

Structure of Alizarin

Onion dye
The dried outer skin of onions can be used for colouring natural textile fibres.
So outer skin of onion which is generally thhrown away as waste can be used to extract dye.
Quercetol is the coloring matter in onion peels.

Strucutre of Quercetol




Central Institute for
Research on Cotton
Technology, Mumbai.

Banana fibre

Adiv pure natural, Mumbai

Madder and Lac
were in powder form.

Adiv pure natural,

Marigold flowes
and onion skin

S. D Fine Chemicals
Ltd. Mumbai



Part 1 Dissolution of Mordant

A stock solution of alum(20%) was made by dissolving 20g of alum in 100 ml of water. Solution was filtered

Part 2 Extraction of Dye

Dyes ( madder, marigold, lac, onion) were taken in fine powder form separetely.
A 10% stock solution was prepared by taking 10g of dye powder round bottom flask. Solution was heated upto boil in heating mentor under reflux condition for 1 hour. After 1 hour solution was filtered and made to original volume,
and used as 10% stock solution for

Part 3 Mordanting

The mordanting of fibres were carried out in Rota
dyer (Rota Dyer machine, Rossari Labtech, Mumbai)
the material to liquor ratio of 1:30.
fibres were introduced into the mordant solution at room temperature and temperature was gradually raised to 85 0C.
The mordanting was continued at this temperature for1 hour.
After mordanting, fibres were squzeed.

Part 4 Dyeing

Dyeing of mordanted banana fibres were carried out in Rota dyer.
the material to liquor ratio of 1:30.
The mordanted fibres dyed with lac, madder, onion and marigold dye extract separately for three diffent shades 10%, 20% and 30%.
The dyeing was continued at 85 0C for 1 hour.After dyeing,
fibres were squzeed and washed
with cold water.

Testing and Analysis

Colour value by reflectance method

The dyed samples were evaluated for the depth of colour
by reflectance method using 10degree observer. The absor-
bance of the dyed samples was measured on Rayscan
Spectrascan 5100+ equipped with reflectance accessories.
The K/S values were determined using expression;

Where, R is the reflectance at complete opacity
K is the Absorption coefficient
S is the Scattering coefficient

The dyed fabrics were simultaneously evaluated in terms of CIELAB colour space (L*, a* and b*) values using the RayscanSpectrascan 5100+. In general, the higher the K/S value, the higher the depth of the colour on the fabric.
CIELAB coordinate system

Evaluation of
Wash fastness

Evaluation of colour fastness to washing was carried out using ISO 105 C03 method.
5g/l soap solution was used as the washing liquor for natural dyes.
The samples were treated for 1hour at 60 0C.
After rinsing and drying, the K/S values of these samples are determined and compared with K/S values original samples ratting is given.
(rating 1–5)




Very good


Evaluation of
Light Fastness

The light fastness was determined using artificial illumination with Tungsten lamp in light Fastness Tester.
Samples are attached on black cardboard and kept for 17 hours.
After that K/S values are find out and compared with K/S vales of standard samples and given ratings to light fat samples.
(rating 1–8)



Very good

Results and Discussion
K/S and fastness values of bleached and mordanted (Alum 20%) banana fibres dyed with Marigold dye
K/S and fastness values of bleached and mordanted (Alum 20%) banana fibres dyed with Lac dye
K/S and fastness values of bleached and mordanted (Alum 20%) banana fibres dyed with Madder dye
K/S and fastness values of bleached and mordanted (Alum 20%) banana fibres dyed with Onion dye
The results indicate that with the increase in percentage shade the K/S values increase and with increase in the percent shade there is an increase in the K/S values showing that the dye has affinity for fibre.
washing fastness varied in range of 3 to 4 (good to very good). This shows that the dye-mordant fibre interaction is good.
overall light fastness varied in the range of 5 to 7 (better to best) for all dyes.
This shows that the dyes are stable
to photo degradation.

Dyeing of banana fibres was successfully carried out using marigold, lac, madder, onion dyes.
The dyed fibres showed good colour strength.
The dye uptake on banana fibres increased with increase in percentage shade.
The dyed banana samples showed satisfactory fastness properties.
Hence, banana fibres can be dyed using natural dyes.
1. Parikh, M. G. and Chauhan, B. C., Mantra Textile Magazine, VOL.8/5, January 2014.
2. Teli, M. D., Valia, S. P., and Kolambar, D.,”Flower Waste From Temple for Dyeing of Cotton and Cotton/Silk Cotton”, Department of Fibres and Textile Processing Technology, Institute of Chemical Technology, Mumbai.
3. Teli, M. D., Valia, S. P., Kolambar, D., Trivedi, R.,and Kamble, M.,”Dyeing of Organic Cotton Fabric with Lac Dye using Different Mordants”, Department of Fibres and Textile Processing Technology, Institute of Chemical Technology, Mumbai.
4. Saxena, S. and. Raja, A. S. M., ” Natural Dyes: Sources, Chemistry, Application and Sustainability Issues”, Central Institute for Research on Cotton Technology, Mumbai, India.
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