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Bacteriophage in aquaculture 2015

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Lisa Elliott

on 14 May 2015

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Transcript of Bacteriophage in aquaculture 2015

Lisa Elliott
Bacteriophage therapy in Aquaculture
Friend or Foe?

Aquaculture
Fastest growing food producing industry in the world.
Control of infectious disease
Phage therapy in Aquaculture
THANK YOU
EXPANDED
INTENSIFIED
DIVERSIFIED
Threats to Aquaculture
sustainability

Infectious disease
Chemical residues
Viral
Fungal
Bacterial
Antibiotic resistance
A shared responsibility
Antibiotic resistance skyrockets
Bacteriophage
How do they work
Virus
Type of infectious agent
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.
Bacteriophage
A type of virus that replicates only inside living bacterial cells.
Animal Virus
A type of virus that replicates only inside living animal cells.
Where are phage found
The most abundant entity on earth
FREDERICK WILLIAM TWORT
(1877-1950)
FELIX D'HERELLE
(1873-1949)
Life cycles
LYTIC CYCLE
LYSOGENIC CYCLE
Attachment (host specific)
Penetration and insertion of DNA
Initiation of lytic or lysogenic cycle
Integration
Phage DNA integrates with bacterial chromosome
becoming a prophage
Binary cell division
Bacteria multiples normally producing identical progeny
Lytic cycle initiated
Unfavourable conditions initiate lytic cycle
Transcription
Transcription of phage DNA
Replication
Replication of phage DNA and proteins
Assembly of phage
Lysis of bacterial cell
Release of hundreds of phage progeny
Lytic cycle takes 15-30 min
1,000,000 bacteriophage
Healthy
microbial
community
Antibiotics
Phage therapy
The use of phage to control specific pathogens or problematic bacteria
Development of a phage therapy for
Aeromonas hydrophila.
Bad
Management
Practices
Oliveira, J., Castilho, F., Cunha, A., Pereira, M.J., 2012. Bacteriophage Therapy as a Bacterial Control Strategy in Aquaculture. Aquaculture International 20, 879-910.
Safety
Application
Sustainability
History
10
32
Safety
Application
Sustainability
Cherax quadricarinatus
Australian freshwater
crayfish.
> 90% mortalities
Aeromonas hydrophila
Common environmental bacteria.
Significant pathogen in aquaculture.
Phage preparation produced.
Bacterial lawn
Lysis due to phage
Antibiotic resistance
Probiotics
Development of a bacteriophage preparation for pathogenic
Streptococcus agalactiae
.

Lisa Elliott
Investigation of bacteriophage therapy in the control of
Vibrio parahaemolytics
associated with AHPND

Lisa Elliott
Investigation of bacteriophage therapy in the control of Vibrio parahaemolytics associated with AHPND.
Acute Hepatopancreaic Necrosis Disease
>70% mortalities
Mortalities in newly stocked ponds
Billions $ loss production
Conclusion
Suitable for phage therapy
>90 % survival
Reduction in biofilm production
Healthy craylings
Daily for 3 months
No resistance
Consistent reduction of pathogen
Less than 4 weeks to produce a phage preparation
Infectivity of animal cells
Specific only to bacteria, no chance of infecting animal cells
Horizontal transfer of genes
In nature up to 10 infections per second
23
Virulent phage only
Host bacteria selected that have no undesirable genes
Toxicology
Over 90 years of research in human and animal
No significant side effects
Liquid
Powder
Injection
Hatchery
Live feeds
Feed
Tablets
Disinfectant - tanks
Topical use - wounds
Possible vaccine production
Treatment
Stability trials
Several years at 4C in liquid and powdered form
Depends on the phage
Sustainability
Most abundant entity on earth
Natures way of controlling bacterial populations
Phage mutate to overcome resistant bacteria
Appropriate selection of phage is crucial
Over 80 years experience in human and animal medicine
Many of the perceived disadvantages have been addressed.
Screening for virulent only phage, no undesirable genes
Many forms
Natural, sustainable antimicrobial, non-toxic and no threat to plant, animal or environment.
Lisa Elliott
ausphage@gmail.com
BAppSc.PhD
>80% reduction
Safety
Application
Sustainability
Million Tonnes
Friend
Chemical
treatments
www.lisaelliott.info
ausphage@gmail.com
Regulations - Restrictions
Phage display - antibodies
Phage vaccines
Gene transfer systems
Full transcript