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Bacteriophage in aquaculture 2015
Transcript of Bacteriophage in aquaculture 2015
Bacteriophage therapy in Aquaculture
Friend or Foe?
Fastest growing food producing industry in the world.
Control of infectious disease
Phage therapy in Aquaculture
Threats to Aquaculture
A shared responsibility
Antibiotic resistance skyrockets
How do they work
Type of infectious agent
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.
A type of virus that replicates only inside living bacterial cells.
A type of virus that replicates only inside living animal cells.
Where are phage found
The most abundant entity on earth
FREDERICK WILLIAM TWORT
Attachment (host specific)
Penetration and insertion of DNA
Initiation of lytic or lysogenic cycle
Phage DNA integrates with bacterial chromosome
becoming a prophage
Binary cell division
Bacteria multiples normally producing identical progeny
Lytic cycle initiated
Unfavourable conditions initiate lytic cycle
Transcription of phage DNA
Replication of phage DNA and proteins
Assembly of phage
Lysis of bacterial cell
Release of hundreds of phage progeny
Lytic cycle takes 15-30 min
The use of phage to control specific pathogens or problematic bacteria
Development of a phage therapy for
Oliveira, J., Castilho, F., Cunha, A., Pereira, M.J., 2012. Bacteriophage Therapy as a Bacterial Control Strategy in Aquaculture. Aquaculture International 20, 879-910.
> 90% mortalities
Common environmental bacteria.
Significant pathogen in aquaculture.
Phage preparation produced.
Lysis due to phage
Development of a bacteriophage preparation for pathogenic
Investigation of bacteriophage therapy in the control of
associated with AHPND
Investigation of bacteriophage therapy in the control of Vibrio parahaemolytics associated with AHPND.
Acute Hepatopancreaic Necrosis Disease
Mortalities in newly stocked ponds
Billions $ loss production
Suitable for phage therapy
>90 % survival
Reduction in biofilm production
Daily for 3 months
Consistent reduction of pathogen
Less than 4 weeks to produce a phage preparation
Infectivity of animal cells
Specific only to bacteria, no chance of infecting animal cells
Horizontal transfer of genes
In nature up to 10 infections per second
Virulent phage only
Host bacteria selected that have no undesirable genes
Over 90 years of research in human and animal
No significant side effects
Disinfectant - tanks
Topical use - wounds
Possible vaccine production
Several years at 4C in liquid and powdered form
Depends on the phage
Most abundant entity on earth
Natures way of controlling bacterial populations
Phage mutate to overcome resistant bacteria
Appropriate selection of phage is crucial
Over 80 years experience in human and animal medicine
Many of the perceived disadvantages have been addressed.
Screening for virulent only phage, no undesirable genes
Natural, sustainable antimicrobial, non-toxic and no threat to plant, animal or environment.
Regulations - Restrictions
Phage display - antibodies
Gene transfer systems