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South Asia

historical influences, empires, religion, colonialism, contemporary issues
by

Atrice Adeniyi

on 19 November 2012

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Transcript of South Asia

South Asia Early Civilizations The first urban civilization was the Harappan civilization. Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa were important cities. Cities were characterized by a well-planned grid system of streets, indoor plumbing, and sewer systems. Society developed advanced technologies and a system of measurement. Aryans migrated into the region from Central Asia. Their language of sanskrit became the basis of many modern languages. They began the practice of Hinduism in the region. Aryan society was organized into social classes known as a caste system.
Brahmans, Kshatriyas, Vaisyas, and Sudras. The untouchables were the lowest members of society. Today, the caste system is less dominate in society. Several empires contributed to the culture of South Asia. These groups include the Mauryan Empire, the Gupta Empire, and the Mughal Empire. The Mughal Empire practiced Islam. The Taj Mahal was constructed during this time period. Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism Religion in South Asia Religion has helped to shape the borders of nations in South Asia. Sikhism began in India in late A.D. 1400. It is a unique religion that developed in the Punjab region between Pakistan and India. They make up 1% of South Asia's population. Hinduism developed over 1000s of years. It is the main religion of India and Nepal. Beliefs include reincarnation, karma, and presence of many deities. The Vedas are important texts. Buddhism was founded in India around 525 B.C. by Siddhartha Gautama. He is known as the Buddha. Followers subscribe to the Four Noble Truths. Buddhists make up about 2% of the population in the region. Colonialism and Partition In the 1600s, the British established the East India Company during the Mughal Empire's reign. The power of the British grew and they colonized the region. The British profited from the natural resources and shipped raw materials back to England. India's economy suffered as a result. In 1857, the Indians unsuccessfully rebelled against British control and the British established direct control over the region- Raj. In 1885, Hindus organized themselves. The fought to remove British rule. Civil Disobedience Mohandas Gandhi led a campaign of civil disobedience against the British in the 1930s. He was assassinated in 1948. Hindus and Muslims were also in conflict over land after the British left. In 1947, India gained its independence from the British. India was divided into two countries. India was Hindu land and Pakistan (East and West) was Muslim land. East Pakistan later became Bangladesh. After the partition. India and Pakistan fought over Kashmir. in 1949, a cease-fire was called resulting in a split of the territory. Conflict over Kashmir still exists today. Since achieving independence, India has crafted a new constitution. India is the largest democracy in the world. In 2009, India elected it first woman Speaker of the House in the Parliament. Over 1 billion people live in India. India Life Today Outsourcing (moving jobs outside the company usually abroad) has been a large part of India's economic growth India is achieving rapid economic growth. Microlending is one way India's trying to increase its level of development. Microlending is the process of making small loans usually $100 or less to rural farmers.
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