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AP US History Study Guide

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tyrone harmon

on 27 May 2015

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Transcript of AP US History Study Guide

The 1500s and Exploration & claim
The spanish brought back a 500 percent increase in gold.
Seeing this other nations turned to America for wealth and power.
The exchange of foods, animals, plants, and disease between the Natives and Europeans is the Columbus exchange
Natives became dependent on the fur and hide trade.
1600s and Settlements
The Virginia company was a joint stock company that sought only to make a profit
The plantation colonies developed and tobacco helped them survive
The founding of Massachusetts Bay, and Plymouth Colony were inspired by religion motivation.
Puritans=purify church
Pilgrims/separatists= seperate from church
Late 1400s and the Renaissance
In Europe there occurred a rebirth of classical learning. This began the gradual increase in scientific knowledge, and technological change.
The 1400s represent the want to explore
Economic motives for exploration grew out of a fierce competition for increase trade With Africa, India, and China.
The land route to Asia was blocked in 1453 because the Turks seized control of Constantinople
Therefore, in 1492 Columbus sailed the ocean blue
Growth of Slavery
Indentured servants played a key role in tobacco cultivation in Maryland and Virginia
Planters used the "headright" system to increase the importance of the need of more indentured servitude
Slave Labor increased rapidly in the late 17th century(1600s) as slaves replaced white indentured servants in the tobacco field.
Bacon's Rebellion 1676
Bacon's rebellion exposed the tension between the former indentured servants and the genteel(the rich)
The planters became suspicious of former indentured servants and turned to slavery as a more reliable source of labor
Colonial resistance to royal control
Royals now wanted to control the colonists more
Kings Dominion of New England
Growth of plantation economies and slave societies
slavery developed and spread because tobacco cultivation required inexpensive labor
although enslaved africans retained their cultural practices
slavery was legally established in all 13 colonies by the early 1700s
Rice was the most important crop grown in South Carolina during the mid 18th century(1700s)
The Stono Rebellion was one of the earliest acts of rebellion against slavery (slaves living in north carolina tried to escape to spanish florida)
The puritans came to the Americas(New England) in families, to escape political repression, religious restrictions, and economic recession.
Their leader was John Winthrop
They typically lived in small villages surrounded by farmland.
Puritan communities were characterized by close relationship between church and state
Puritans believed in the necessity for a trained and educated ministry. They founded Harvard and Yale college to ensure an adequate supply of ministers.
John Winthrop called on the Puritans to build a model society, which he referred to as " A CITY UPON A HILL"
A city upon a hill
The puritans had a powerful sense of mission; to build an ideal christian society
Puritans created a strict code of moral conduct christian society
Winthrop believed that " All eyes are upon us. So that if we shall deal falsely with our god in his work we have undertaken, and so cause him to withdraw his present help from us, we shall be made a story and a by-word through the world."
Puritans and Controversial religious freedom
The puritans immigrated to America for Religious freedom. However, they did not tolerate religious dissent or diversity
It is important to remember not everyone shared Winthrop's vision
Both Anne Hutchinson and Roger Williams were expelled for challenging the puritan authorities.
Anne Hutchinson
She is best known for her struggle with the Massachusetts Bay authorities over religious doctrine and gender roles
She challenged clerical authority
Hutchinson and her family were banished and, later killed by indians
Roger Williams
Roger founded Rhode Island
He advanced the cause of religious toleration and freedom of thought
he believed that the state was an improper and ineffectual agency in matters of spirit
The half-way covenant
As time passed, the puritans' religious zeal began to diminish
The half-way covenant eased requirements for church membership by allowing the baptism of the children baptized but unconverted puritans
The first Great Awakening
The first great awakening was a revivalism of religious feeling, and spirit by revivalist, baptists, Methodists, etc.
It took the form of a wace of religious revivals that began in New England(colonies that were dominioned by the king) in the 1730s.
The wave soon swept across all the colonies during the 1740s.
It created "New light" ministers who advocated an emotional approach to religious practice
New light ministers supported New light institutions of higher learning such as princeton. Furthermore, they Sparked a renewed missionary spirit that led to the conversion of many African slaves.
AN increase in the number of women in church congregation
Pennsylvania and the quakers!!!
The colony was founded by William Penn
Pen created an unusually liberal colony, which included a representative assembly elected by land owners
Pennsylvania granted freedom of religion and did not have a state-supported church
Now lets get to those quaker I mean quakers
Quakers were pacifists who refused to bear arms
Quakers advocated freedom of worship and accepted a greater role for women in church services
Quakers opposed slavery and were among America's first abolitionists( supports the abolishment or banishing of something)
Colonial society on the eve of the revolution
Northern merchants and southern planters amassed great wealth.
The number of non-english settlers continued to increase. for example scotch-irish and German immigrants moved into Appalachia as the native americans were defeated
The 13 colonies were religiously diverse. There was no single dominant protestant denomination
Slavery was generally accepted as a labor system.
Functioning primarily as mercantile centers, colonial cities collected agricultural goods. Most colonial cities were ports.
Mercantilism and the navigation acts
Mercantilism is the belief of profitable trading which was england's dominant economic philosophy
The goal of mercantilism was for england to have a favorable trade. To achieve this the colonies were EXPECTED to export raw materials and import finished goods. This was all designed to promote england's wealth and prosperity.
The navigation acts were part of the british policy of mercantilism. They listed colonial products that could be shipped only to englands
The mercantilist system led to the subornation of colonial economy to that of the mother country.
The navigation acts were essentially a series of acts passed to monopolize colonial trade with england. The prohibited direct trade between the colonists and other countries.
Women in colonial America
During the colonial period a women usually lost control of her property when she married
During that period a married woman had no separate legal identity apart from her husband
During that period single women and widows had the right to won property
Republican Government
Republicanism is the belief that government should be based on the consent of the governed
Republicanism inspired eighteenth-century american revolutionaries
Principles of republicans were of the following:
Sovereignty(power) comes from the people. Representation should therefore be apportioned based on population
a republic would establish a small limited government that is responsible to the people
widespread ownership of property was the bases of republican government
Standing armies were dangerous and should be avoided
agrarian(farming) life is both desirable and virtuous
The Road to Revolution
Starting with the French and Indian war
The proclamation line of 1763
Sugar act 1764
stamp act 1765
Boston Massacre 1770
tea act 1773
Boston tea party 1773
The coercive(intolerable acts) 1774
"common sense" 1776
Enlightenment and Deism
The Declaration To independence 1776
French and Indian War
The french were moving into Mississippi, and Ohio valleys to form alliances with the Native Americans to dominate fur and dear skin trade.
The English and French(plus indians) believed they had rights to the land and when the Ohio company received a grant for the land; both parties began to build forts and capture the other parties forts. These skirmishes and a particular expedition led by George Washington eventually led to the escalation of a wider full scale war
The war finally ended with the treaty of paris in 1763
Short term effects:
Territorial changes (Britain now receiving parts of Canada)
French Removed from Ohio
Pontiac's Rebellion
Huge debt from war
Long term effects:
Pontiac's rebellion led to the proclamation line of 1763
Distrust from colonies to Britain
Colonies realized they could unite against a common foe
Taxes on colonists because of war debt
the revolutionary war
More road to Revolution... (1760s)
The Proclamation line of 1763:
forbade british colonists from crossing an imaginary boundary along the crest of the Appalachian mountains.
This was to avoid conflict from native americans
Sugar Act:
colonial merchants had to pay 6 pence per gallon of sugar or molasses
Stamp Act:
Required that printed materials be produced on stamped paper that they had to pay for.
The act's primary purpose was to raise revenue to support British troops stationed in America(well be mentioned again later

Boston port act:
closed boston ports until colonist repaid the East India Company and the king was satisfied.
Massachusests Government act
: altered the government of Massachusetts. All positions would be appointed by the king, and town meetings could only exist once a year
Administration of Justice Act:
trials that were in relation to royal officials were to take place in great britain
Quartering act:
forced all colonists had to provide housing for british soldiers
The coercive (intolerable acts):
More on Stamp Act
Does the parliament have the right to tax the colonies?
Can Parliament truly reflect colonial interest??
A debate over the act was raised " no taxation without representation."
The Stamp Act was important for:
The colonist demonstrated their willingness to use violence rather than legal means to frustrate british policy
British maintained that the colonies had no right to independence from parliamentary authority
patriot leaders claimed that the act denied them their british birth rights
many colonists believed they were entitled to all the rights and privileges of british subjects
Common Sense
Common sense was a political pamphlet written by Thomas Paine
The pamphlet was a strongly worded all for independence from great britain
Paine opposed monarchy and strongly favored republican government
Paine offered a vigorous defense of republican principles
Paine's words helped overcome the loyalty many still felt for the monarchy and the mother country
paine used biblical analogies and references to illustrate his arguments
Enlightenment and response to intolerable acts
Enlightenment: an eighteenth century (1700s) philosophy stresssing that reason can be used to improve the human condition.
Enlightenment thinkers stressed the idea of natural rights
The 1st continental congress was a response to the intolerable acts.
This was important for it showed the first signs of a government from the colonist
The olive branch petition was sent to the king which was a call for piece and stated that the colonist were loyal and wanted reconciliation
The British ignored the olive branch petition
The declaration of independence
After lexington and concord the second continental congress met and declared independence
The declaration of independence's creators used the philosophy of natural rights, derived from the writings of john locke
They appealed to the sympathies of the english people
they accused George the 3rd of tyranny
Some congress members believed in deism(the belief that god created a nuiverse that is governed by natural law. These natural laws can be discovered through the use of human reason.
Why the Colonists supported the war
The colonists believed Goerge the 3rd was a tyrant
They believed that parliament(the british government) wanted to control the internal affairs of the colonies without consent of the colonists
they were convinced that british ministers and other government officials had a corrupting influence on the colonists
they wanted greater political participation in policies affecting the colonies
they resented the quartering of british troops in colonial homes
they wanted to preserve their local autonomy and way of life from british interference
The revolutionary war 1776-1781
The french and indian war
The proclamation line of 1763, Sugar act 1764, stamp act 1765, Boston Massacre 1770 ,tea act 1773, Boston tea party 1773 ,The coercive(intolerable acts) 1774, "common sense" 1776, Enlightenment and Deism,The Declaration To independence 1776
The french American alliance and the battle of saratoga:
The battle of saratoga was important because it convinced the french government to declare war on great britain and openly aid the american cause
French military and financial assistance played a key role in enabling america to win the revolutionary war
France was not motivated by republican ideals, they only sought to weaken the british empire
the french american alliance influenced the british to offer generous peace terms in the treaty of paris

treaty of paris:
established america's new boundaries. The united states stretched west to the mississippi, north to the great lakes, and south to spanish florida
america agreed that loyalists would not be further persecuted
From articles of confederation to the constitution
The writers of the articles of confederation were cautious about giving the new government powers they had just denied parliament.
It was deliberately weak out of fear of the way british ruled
The articles' greatest weaknesses were the lack of authority to tax, and the lack to exercise authority directly over the states
The most important accomplishment was the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 which:
Provided for the orderly creation of territorial governments and new states
excluded slavery north of the ohio river
supported public education

We were in massive debt due to the war and we couldnt collect taxes and the british wouldn't trade with us
Farmers revolted in what was known as Shay's rebellion
Shay's Rebellion
The rebellion was sparked by the economic frustrations of massachusetts farmers who were losing their farms because they could not pay debts
The leaders of Shay's rebellion sought:
end of farm foreclosures
end to imprisonment for debt
relief from oppressively high taxation
increased circulation of paper money
Leaders of shays' rebellion did NOT attempt to overthrow the government of Massachusetts
The articles of confederation proved to be too weak to handle the situation
Shay's rebellion helped convince the key leaders that the articles of confederation were too weak and that the united states needed a stronger central government
The Federal Constitution
The constitution was the result of a series of compromises that created a government acceptable to large and small states, as well as free and slave states
The following were provisions in the constitution as submitted to the states
the seperation of powers, which organizes the national government into three branches
the authority of congress to declare war
guarantee of the legality of slavery
creation of electoral college
provision for impeachment of president
presidential state of the union messafe
provision for ratifying the constitution
a bicameral(two chamber) legislature (created by great compromise)
enumeration of the powers of congress
3/5ths compromise
The provisions of the constitution as ratified in 1788
two term limit for presidents
universal manhood suffrage(right to vote)
presidential cabinet
direct election of senators
Added by the bill of rights
Guarantees of freedom of speech and of press
Right to a speedy and public trial
Federalist papers and anti-federalists
Federalist papers were created by alexander Hamilton and James Madison to support the ratification of the constitution. The prevailing conventional wisdom was challenged when they asserted that a large republic offered the best protection of minority rights
Feared that strong central government would become tyrannical
Drew support from rural areas
argued that the president would have too much power
feared the levy of heavy taxes
fear of the raising of a standing army
feared national government would overwhelm states
argued that individual rights needed to be protected
Hamilton's policies
The aim of hamilton's policies were to:
promote economic growth
strengthen the new nation's finances
Hamilton Proposed to:
establish national bank
adopt a protective tariff to raise revenue
fund the national debt
assume state debts incurred during revolution
tax distilled liquor to raise revenue
expand domestic manufacturing

Hamilton favored loose interpretation of the constitution. He used the implied powers of the necessary but proper clause to justify his proposal. He Believed what the constitution does not forbid, it permits
Jefferson favored strict interpretation and believed what the constitution does not permit, it forbids.
Hamilton v Jefferson
wanted alliance with england
Alliance with france
more democratic
more free speech
Hamilton's 5 point plan:
1 establish nation's credit worthiness
2 create national debt
3. create a bank of the united states
4 a whisky tax
5(to encourage manufactoring) impose a tarrif
Democratic-republicans agreed to 1-4 but debated that 5 was unconstitutional and in exchange gave them a capitol (washington DC)
There was also a whisky rebellion that washington with troops quickly put a stop to
Washington's farewell address
Washington warned American's about the dangers of foreign entanglements

1. president wilson's opponents would use washington's farewell address to justify their opposition of the league of nations
2. During the 1930s isolationists would use Washington's address to justify their support of the neutrality acts
Presidency of Thomas Jefferson
The victory of jefferson and the democratic-republicans marked the end of what has been called the federalist decade. The election of 1800 has been referred to as a revolution because the party in power gave up power peacefully after loosing an election
Farming is virtuous and creates independence from corrupting influences of cities, bankers, and industrialists
Federal government must not violate rights of the states
Freedom of speech and the press are essential rights. The alien and sedition acts violated these rights
The scope of activities of the federal government should be reduced. The president should practice republican simplicity
The Louisiana purchase 1803
The louisiana purchase had its origins in jefferson's desire to acquire the port of new orleands to provide an outlet for western crops
the failure of french army to suppress the haitian revolt played a role in motivating napoleon to sell the lousiana territory
Jefferson purchasing the lousiana territory violated jefferson's belief in strict interpretation of the constitution. As a result, jefferson had to be pragmatic and do what was best for his country
jefferson hoped to perpetuate an agricultural society by making abundant lands available to future generations
The louisiana purchase was america's largest acquisition of territory
The Marshall Court
Chief justice John Marshall believed that a strong central government best served the nation's interest
the marbury v madison case established the principle of judicial review
the ruling gave the supreme court the authority to declare acts of congress unconstitutional
under Marshall's leadership, the supreme court upheld the supremacy of federal legislation(law) over state legislation(law)
for example in dartmouth college v woodward the marshall court ruled that a astate cannot enroach on a contract
Marshall was an economic nationalist who promoted business enterprise
For example, in mcculloch v maryland the court stru down a maryland law taxing the baltimore branch of the national bank
The war of 1812
British impressment of American seamen
British interference with American commerce
British aid to Native Americans on the frontier
we wanted canada

contributing to the demise of the federalist party
confirmed America would exist
intensifying nationalist feelings(patriotism)
promoting industrialization
advancing the career of Andrew Jackson

The treaty of Ghent ended the war and turned everything back to status quo

Presidency of James Monroe 1817-1825
Really a war against native americans
Clay's American system referred to transportation projects such as roads and canals. To promote and unite the various sections of the country
an era of good feelings or rising tensions?
democratic-republicans in control of congress and presidency
settled first major 19th century(1800s) conflict over slavery
Maine entered the union as a free state
Missouri entered as slave state thus maintaining the balance of free and slave states
the compromise closed the remaining territory of the lousiana purchase above the 36' 30' line to abolish slavery
The monroe doctrine 1823
the Monroe doctrine was a unilateral declaration of principles that asserted american independence from europe in terms of foreign policy
warned european nations against further colonial ventures into the western hemisphere
promised the united states would not interfere in the internal affairs of European nations
was successful because of the power of british navy
Age of Jackson
Jacksonian Democracy
Belief in the common man: Andrew Jackson was seen as a common man who represented the interests of the people
Expanded suffrage(voting): jacksonians dramatically expanded white male suffrage
Patronage: The policy of placing political supporters in office
Opposition to privileged elites: as a champion of the common man, Jackson despised the special privileges eastern elites
The tariffs passed between 1816-1828 were the first tariffs in american history hose primary purpose was protection. This " TARIFF OF ABOMINATIONS" forced John C Calhoun to formulate his doctrine of nullification.
The doctrine of nullification drew heavily on states' rights arguments advanced in the Kentucky and Virginia resolutions
In the south Carolina Exposition and protest calhoun argued that a state can refuse to recognize an act of congress that it considers unconstitutional
Jackson's opposition of nullification enhanced his reputation as strong president

Bank War
Jackson vetoed and vigorouosly opposed the bill to re-charter the second bank of the United States (BUS)
Jackson believed that the bank was a bastion of special privileges. He argued that the BUS was beneficial to advocates of hard money and thus inimical to the interests of the common people who elected him
Jackson supported the removal of federal deposits from the Bank of the United states
Jackson's attack on BUS caused an expansion of credit and speculation
The number of state banks, each issuing its own paper currency, increased
Jackson's war on the BUS was an important catalyst for the emergence of a competitive two party system. The Whigs who hated Jackson and supported Henry Clay and his American system
Jackson and the forced Removal of Native Americans
The Cherokees differed from other native american tribes in that the Cherokees tried to mount a court challenge to a removal order. The supreme court upheld the rights of the Cherokee tribe to their tribal lands.
Jackson's antipathy toward Native Americans was well known. He refused to recognize the Court's decision declaring "John Marshall has made his decision: now let him enforce it."
Jackson's Native American policy resulted in the removal of the Cherokee from their homeland to settlements across the Mississippi river
the trail of tears refers to the route taken by native americans as they were relocated
approximately one-quarter of the cherokee people died on the trail of tears
antebellum: Before the civil war
Planters and slaves in the antebellum south 1816-1860
Cotton became the south's most important crop due to:
Invention of cotton gin
Rich new farmland
rise of textile manufactoring in england created enormous demand for cotton
It Is important to remember that a majority of white adult males were small farmers rather than wealthy planters. The majority of white families in the antebellum south owned no slaves
Nonetheless, a small minority of planters who owned 20 or more slaves dominated the antebellum south

Slave Society
slaves maintained social networks among kindred and friends, despite forced separation
the dramatic increase in the south's slave labor force was due to the natural populations increase of american born slaves
During the antebellum period, free african american were able to accumulate some property
southern legal codes did not uniformly provide for legalization and stability of slave marriage, slave were generally able to marry, and the institution of marriage was common on southern plantations
majority of slaves adapted to the oppressive conditions imposed on them by developing a separate african american culture
slave revolts were frequent. Most southern slaves resisted their masters by feigning illness and woking as slowly as possible
The transportation revolution
Completed in 1825, the erie canal sparked a period of canal building that lasted until 1850
steamboats became widely used in the 1820 and 1830s
The first railroad appeared in the United states in 1828
within 30 years we built 30,000 miles of track
The eerie canal strengthened commercial and political ties between New York City and the growing cities on the great lakes
Canals helped open the west to settlement and trade
steamboats dramatically increased river traffic while significantly lowering the cost of river transportation
like the canals, railroads enabled farmers in the midwest easier access to urban markets in the east
canals, steamboats, and railroads had the least impact on the south
Role of women in antebellum
Cult of domesticity/republican motherhood: american women could not vote, serve in juries, or perform other civic tasks.
The concept of "republican motherhood" advanced the idea that women did have a vital role to play as wives and mothers. proponents argued that women should be educated to rear their children to be virtuous citizens of the future. The republican mother should be concerned with domestic, family, and religious affair
During the first half of the nineteenth century(1800s) textile mills in Massachusetts relied heavily on a abor force of women and children.
Prior to the civil war irish immigrants began to replace new england farm girls in the textile mills
Women's Movement
the movement was led by middle class women
it promoted close links to anti-slavery and temperance movements
followers held conventions everywhere but the south
the Seneca Falls Convention (1848) was organized and led By Elizabeth Stanton and Lucretia Mott
the declaration of sentiments and resolutions demanded greater rights for women
the seneca falls convention called for :
Women's suffrage(voting)
women's right to retain property after marriage
Greater divorce and child custody rights
equal educational opportunities
( did not call for equal pay or liberal abortion)
Dorothea Dix worked to reform the treatment of people with mental and emotional disabilities. Dix was not involved in the women's right movement
The Second great Awakening
the second great awakening was a wave of religious enthusiasm, led bu itinerant preachers such as Charles finny
Finny achieved his great success in central and western New York. This area became known as the "burning over district" because of the fervent prayer meetings held
The second great awakening played an important part in making americans aware of the moral issues posed by slavery. They believed that slavery was a sin
the American colonization society worked to return freed slaves to Liberia
it was primarily led by middle class men and women
William Lloyd garrison was an editor of the radical abolitionist newspaper called the liberator. he was one of the founders of the american anti-slavery society
Sarah Grimke was one of the first women to publicly support both abolition and women's rights
Transcendentalism and utopian communities
transcendentalism is a philosophical and literary movement of the 1800s, that emphasized living a simple life while celebrating the truth found in nature and in personal emotion and imagination
Henry David Thoreau and ralph waldo emerson were leading transcendentalist writers
Utopians shared a faith in perfectionism, the belief that humans have the capacity to achieve a better life through conscious acct of will
Brook farm, new harmony, and Oneida community are examples
Utopian communities strove to escape the competitiveness of american life, regulate moral behavior, and create cooperative lifestyles.
the Hudson River School was a group of artists led by Thomas Cole who painted landscapes emphasizing America's natural beauty. It was also America's first coherent school of art
Manifest Destiny and Territorial expansion
manifest destiny was the name given to the belief that the united states would inevitably expand westward to the pacific ocean
Manifest destiny was used to gain public support for american territorial expansion
Texas became the lone star republic in 1836, we ignored texas at first because americans were divided over the issue of admitting another slave state into the union
Oregon: the united states and Britain reached a compromise that established the northern boundary of Oregon at the 49th parallel
The mexican war 1846-1848
president polk justified the mexican war by claiming that mexican troops illegally crossed into american territory and shedded american blood on american soil
led by Abraham Lincoln and supported by the transcendentalist writer Henry thoreau, whigs opposed the mexican war
THE TREATY OF GUADALUPE HIDALGO ended the mexican war under the terms that the United States gained California, New Mexico ( also present day Nevada, Uta, Arizona and parts of Colorado and Wyoming) and recognized Rio grande as the southern boundary of Texas
THE WILMOT PROVISO called for the prohibition of slavery in lands acquired from Mexico
Although the wilmot proviso never became federal law, it was eventually endorsed by the legislatures of ll but on of the free states, and it came to symbolize the polarizing issue of extending slavery into the territories. It never passed and became law, however, it did change the debate of slavery
The Compromise of 1850
Stephen Douglas, Daniel Webster, Henry Clay, and John Calhoun all played key roles in the negotiations that resulted in the passage of the compromise of 1850
Abraham Lincoln didn't play a role in this
the provisions are as follows:
admission of California as a free state
abolition of the slave trade in Columbia district
protection of slavery in Columbia district
More strict fugitive salve act
establishment of new mexico and utah
Popular sovereignty (power)
Senator Stephen Douglas was the leading proponent of popular sovereignty
Their status as a salve or free state would be determined by popular sovereignty
Consequences of the Kansas-Nebraska act
The act did the following:
repealed the Missouri compromise of 1820, thus heightening sectional tensions
permitted the expansion of slavery beyond the southern states
led to a divisive debate over the expansion of slavery into territories
ignited bloody contest for control over Kansas
split the democratic party
sparked formation of republican party
Dred Scott case 1857
The ruling:
Dred Scott was a slave and thus could not sue in federal court
under the constitution slaves were private property and thus could be taken into any territory and legally held there in slavery
slaves could not be taken from their masters regardless of territory's status of free or slave state
the consequences
the ruling invalidated the northwest ordinance of 1787 and Missouri compromise of 1820
the ruling became a major issue in thee Lincoln v Douglas debates
the decision widened the gap between north and south thus bringing them closer to war
The election of 1860
Republicans v democrats:
led by Abraham Lincoln, the republicans accepted slavery where it existed but opposed further extension of slavery into territories
the democratic party split, north democrats supported Stephen Douglas and popular sovereignty. southern democrats supported john Breckenridge and the extension of slavery
Lincoln won the electoral vote but not the popular vote
led by south Carolina seven southern states seceded from the union
Civil war
Northern advantages:
an extensive railroad network
strong industrial base
a superior navy
large population
abundant supply of food
Northern disadvantages
shortage of experienced and skilled military commanders
a divided population that did not fully support the war
Southern advantages:
defensive war fought on its home territory
long coastline that would be difficult to blockade
important cash in crop on cotton
group of experienced military commanders
close economic relationship with great britain
Southern Disadvantages:
smaller population than the North
smaller industrial base than the North
The Border States
strategic location
important industrial and agricultural resources
Key Boarder States
The Battle of Antietam
the Union Victory persuaded England and France to Remain neutral. While both European powers saw advantages in dividing America. They followed a cautious policy toward both north and south
The union Victory in Antietam enabled Abraham Lincoln to issue the Emancipation Proclamation
The Emancipation Proclamation
Lincoln delayed issuing the Emancipation proclamation because he didn't want to antagonize slave owners in border states
The north originally went to war to preserve the union. The Emancipation proclamation strengthened the Union's Moral cause
the emancipation proclamation rallied anti-slavery support in England and France
The emancipation did not free slaves in the border states
The emancipation proclamation freed only the slaves in Confederate States that were still in rebellion
(The proclamation significantly raised the Union's moral value,however, it did not free slaves. Slavery was legally abolished by the thirteenth amendment
Key political actions during the civil war
Congressional Actions:
congress established a national banking system to provide a uniform national currency
congress chartered two corporations-the union pacific railroad and central pacific railroad-to build a transcontinental railroad
Congress passed the homestead act of 1862, offering cheap sometimes free land to people who would settle in the west and improve their property
congress passed high tariffs to protect american industry from foreign competition
Expansion of presidential power:
lincoln found that the war required active and prompt presidential action
lincoln suspended the writ of habeas corpus for everyone living between Washington D.C and Philadelphia
Reconstruction and the New South 1865-1900
The war ended in surrender of robert lee to ulysses grant
The reconstruction amendments
The thirteenth amendment 1865:
abolish slavery and involuntary servitude
completed the work of the emancipation proclamation
The fourteenth amendment 1868:
made the former slaves citizens, thus invalidating the dred scott decision
provided equal protection of the laws for all citizens
enforced congressional legislation guaranteeing civil rights to former slaves
The Fifteenth amendment 1870:
Provided suffrage (voting) for black males
it stirred controversy among women's rights advocates
some women's rights supporters supported the amendment
some women's rights advocates opposed the amendment and advocated, without success, for a universal suffrage amendment
Radical Reconstruction
(complete economic, and political rebuilding)
former confederates were elected to congress
black codes were enacted in southern states
race riots broke out in new orleans and memphis
there were attempts in the south to undermine the fourteenth amendment
Programs and policies:
Military occupation of the south was permitted
punishment of confederate leaders became policy
restrictions were placed on the power of President Andrew Johnson
the house of representatives impeached Johnson because he obstructed enforcement of the Reconstruction acts
Public school systems in southern states were improved
african americans were elected to the house and senate
The plight for African Americans:
from slaves to sharecroppers
the majority of freedmen went into sharecropping
share cropping led to a cycle of dept and depression for southern tenant farmers
Black codes:
the codes were passed by southern state legislature
they were intended to place limits on the socioeconomic opportunities and freedoms open to black people
the codes forced african americans to work under conditions similar to slavery
The election of 1876 and the compromise of 1877
The election of 1876:
Samuel J Tilden polled more popular votes than Rutherford B Hayes
Tilden won 184 out of 185 electoral votes needed for election
there were 20 disputes in four states, 3 of which were in the south
The compromise of 1877
The democrats agreed that Hayes would take office
the republicans agreed to withdraw all federal troops from the south
Hayes promised to appoint at least one Southerner to his cabinet
The Republicans agreed to support internal improvements in the south
the republicans abandoned their commitment to racial equality. For example, the civil rights act of 1875 guaranteed equal accommodations in public places and prohibited racial discrimination in jury selection. the law was not enforced
The compromise of 1877 ended congressional reconstruction
The rise of Jim Crow segregation
the 1883 civil rights cases:
the cases weakened the protection given to african americans under the fourteenth amendment
much of the civil rights act of 1875 was declared unconstitutional
the cases declared that the fourteenth amendment prohibited only government violations of civil rights not the denial of civil rights to individuals
Disenfranchising black voters:
literacy tests and poll taxes were used to deny african americans the ballot
the grandfather clause exempted from these requirements
electoral districts were gerrymandered to favor the democratic party
Plessy v Ferguson 1896
The case involved a dispute over the legality of segregated railroad cars in louisiana
it upheld segregation by approving "separate but equal" accommodation for african americans
it led to the establishment of separate school systems for african americans
the doctrine of "separate but equal" was reversed in 1954 by the brown v board of education
Booker T Washington called on African Americans to seek economic opportunities rather than political rights. He supported economic self-help, accommodation to white society, racial solidarity(unity), and vocational education
Booker T Washington
The New South
Economic development
Proponents of the New South supported building a more diversified Southern economy
New South advocates championed the expansion of southern industry
Political Repression of African Americans
New South advocates supported the return Of white conservatives to political power
New South advocates supported the withdrawal of federal troops while ignoring the rise of the KKK and the increase in lynching
african americans who migrates to Kansas were known as exodusters
The old west 1865-1900
The first transcontinental railroad was completed in 1869
Five transcontinental railroads were constructed during the nineteenth (1800s)
Irish and chinese workers played key roles in the construction of the transcontinental railroads
Consequences for the great plains
the railroads played a key role in the near-extinction of the buffalo herds. This dealt a devastating blow to the culture of the plains indians.
the railroads brought a tidal wave of troops, farmers, miners, and cattlemen to the Great Plains.
as the settlers built farms, range-fed cattle rapidly replaced the now decimated buffalo herds.
Transformation of the plains Indians
Key Causes:
The virtual extermination of buffalo doomed the plains indians' nomadic way of life
the plains indians were ravaged by diseases
the transcontinental railroads transformed the economy of the entire region
Publication of Century of dishonor 1881:
The book was written by Helena hunt jackson
it aroused public awareness of the federal government's long record of betraying and cheating native americans
The dawes act of 1887:
Goals: inspired by century of dishonor book he dawes act was a misguided attempt to reform the government's native american policy
attempted to assimiliate native americans into mainstream american life
the dawes act ignored the inherent reliance of traditional indian culture on tribally owned land
by 1900 indians ad lost 50 percent of the 156 million acres they had
the forced assimilation doctrine of the dawes act remained the cornerstone of the government's indian policy for half a century
The ghost dance:
the dance was a sacred ritual expressing a vision that the buffalo would return and white civilization would vanish
the army attempted to destroy it at the so called battle of wounded knee fearing that the ceremony would cause an uprising
Fading frontier and turner thesis
In 1890 the superintendent of the census reported that for the first time in american history a frontier(explorers) line no longer existed
The "closing" of the frontier inspired frederick jackson turner to write an influential essay called " the significance of the frontier in american history"
AN influential thesis
Turner argued that the existence of cheap, unsettled land had played a key role in making american society more democratic
the frontier helped shape a distinctive american spirit of democracy and egalitarianism(believer in equality)
the frontier acted as a safety valve that enabled eastern factory workers and immigrants to escape bad economic conditions and find new opportunities
the frontier played a key role in stimulating american nationalism and individualism
the frontier made it that america didn't have a hereditary landed aristocracy
Industrial America(revolution)
the consolidation(strengthening) of big business
vertical integration occurs when a company controls both the production and distribution of its product. For example, Andrew Carnegie use vertical integration to gain control over the U.S steel industry
Horizontal integration occurs when one company gains control over other companies that produce the same product
by the end of the nineteenth century(1800s) monopolies and trusts exercised a significant degree of control over key aspects of the american economy
Results of consolidation:
Corporations built large, systematically organized factories where work was increasingly performed by machines and unskilled workers
corporations introduced systems of "scientific management" also known as taylorism to increase factory production and lower labor costs
corporatoins accumulated cast sums of investment capital
corporations used the railroads to help develop national markets for their goods
labor and labor unions
Key trends:
immigrants, women, and children significantly expanded the labor force
machines increasingly replacing skilled artisans
large bureaucratic corporations dominated the american economy
corporations developed nationaal and even international markets for their goods
knights of labor
the knights were led by Terence V Powderly growing to 730,000 tickets
the knights welcome unskilled and semiskilled women, including women, immigrants, and african americans
the knights were idealists who believed they could eliminate conflict between labor and management. their goal was to create a cooperative society in which laborers, not capitalists, owned the industries in which they worked
Industrial works of the world
the industrial workers of the world (IWW) was led by "mother" Jones, Elizabeth Flynn, and big Bill Haywood
like the knights of labor, IWW strove to unite all laborers, including unskilled african americans who were excluded from craft unions
IWW's motto was " an injury to one is an injury to all" and its goal was to create "one big union"
unlike the knights, the IWW embraced the rhetoric of class conflict and endorsed violent tactics
IWW collapsed during World War 1
The American Federation of Labor
the american federation OF labor was led by Samuel Gompers
The AFL was an alliance of skilled workers in craft unions
AFL concentrated on bread and butter issues such as higher wages, shorter hours, and better working conditions
The pullman strike 1894
during the last nineteenth century the american labor movement experienced a number of violent srikes. The two best known strikes were the homestead strike and pullman strike
when the national economy fell into a depression, the Pullman palace car company cut wages while maintaining rent and prices in a company town where 12,000 workers lived. This action precipitated the Pullman strike
Pullman strike halted a substantial portion of american railroad commerce
prior to 1880 most immigrants to the united states came from the british isles and western europe
Beginning in the 1880s a new wave of immigrants came. The majority lived in Italy, Russia, Poland, and Austria-Hungary
new immigrants settled in cities
The chinese exclusion act of 1882
This was the first law in american history to exclude a group from America because of ethnic background
the act prohibited the immigration of chinese to america
working class americans who felt threatened by chinese workers strongly supported the law
support for e law was particularly strong in California
Nativist opposition to the new immigrants
nativist had previously opposed irish and german catholic immigrants
nativists opposed the new immigrants for the following reasons
immigrants were heavily catholic and jewish
they spoke different languages and practiced different cultural traditions
they did not understand american political traditions
they were willing to work for lower wages
Social Darwinism
Social Darwinism is the belief that the fittest survive in both nature and society
wealthy business and industrial leaders use social darwinism to JUSTIFY their actions
socal dawinists believed that industrial and urban problems are part of a natural evolutionary process that humans cannot control
Gospel of Wealth
this gospel was promoted by Andrew Carnegie
it expressed the belief that, as guardians of society's wealth, the rich have a duty to serve society
Over his lifetime, Carnegie donated more than 350 million to support libraries, schools, peace initiatives, and the arts.
Social Gospel
The social gospel was a reform movement based on the belief that christians have a responsibility to confront social problems
Christian ministers were among the leaders of the social gospel movement
Literary and artistic movements
Realism was the most significant movement in american literature during the late nineteenth century
Edward Bellamy's book looking backward:2000 to 1887 was a utopian reaction to the author's disillusionment with the problems created by the growth of industrialism
the ashcan school of art focused on urban scenes such as crowded tenements and boisterous barrooms
the 1913 Exhibition of modern art provided the american public's first exposure to new trends in european art. The show served as a catalyst for american artists, who began to experiment with new styles of art
Populism and progressivism
causes of agrarian(farming) discontent
belief that railroads were using discriminatory rates to exploit farmers
belief that big business used high tariffs to exploit farmers
belief that a deflationary monetary policy based on gold hurt farmers
belief that corporations charged exorbitant prices for fertilizers and farm machinery
The populist or people's party
The populist part attempted to unite discontented farmers
it attempted to improve their economic conditions
the populist party supported the following:
increasing the money supply with the free and unlimited coinage of silver and gold
using the interstate commerce act of 1887 to regulate railroads and prevent discrimination against small customers
organizing cooperative marketing societies
supporting the candidacy of william jennings bryan in 1896
Reasons the populist party failed
western and southern farmers did not agree on political strategies
racism prevented poor white and black farmers from working together
dramatic increases in urban population caused by the wave of new immigrants led to higher prices for agricultural products
the discovery of gold in Yukon increased the supply of gold, thus easing farmers' credit
the democratic party absorbed many populist programs
william jennings bryan lost the 1896 presidential election to william mckinley and the republicans
The progressives
progressive leaders were primarily middle-class reformers concerned with urban and consumer issues
progressive reformers believed that government should be used to ameliorate(improve) social problems
progressive reformers wanted to use governmental power to regulate industrial production and improve labor condition
Progressive reformers rejected social darwinism, arguing that cooperation offered the best way to improve society
key Goals
Democratization of the political process
direct election of senators
women's suffrage
reform of local government
regulation of big business
passage of child labor laws
antitrust legislation
passage of pure food and drug act
( did not fight for civil rights laws or the creation of socialist commonwealth)
Progressive constitutional amendments
the sixteenth amendment gave congress the power to lay and collect income taxes
the seventeenth amendment provided the senators shall be elected by popular vote
the eighteenth amendment forbade the sale or manufacture of intoxicating liquors
the nineteenth amendment granted women the right to vote
Leading Muckrakers
Muckrakers were investigative reporters who promoted social and political reforms by exposing corruption and urban problems
Muckrakers were the leading critics of urban bosses and corporate robber barons
The rise of mass-circulation newspapers and magazines enabled muckrackers to reach a large audience
Upton Sinclair
Sinclair wrote the novel "the jungle' graphically exposing abuses in the meatpacking industry
he helped convince congress to pass the meat inspection act of 1906 and the pure food and drug act
*Jacob Riis
Riis was a journalist and photographer working primarily in new york City
Riis's book "how the other half lives" provided poignant pictures that gave a human face to the poverty and despair experienced by immigrants living in new york city's lower east side
Ida Tarbell
Tarbell was the foremost woman in the muckraking movement
she published a highly critical history of the standard oil company, calling it the mother of trusts
Progressive Presidents
Teddy Roosevelt addressed all of the following progressive issues:
conservation of natural resources and wildlife
unsanitary conditions in the meatpacking industry
monopolization and consolidation in the railroad industry
unsafe drug products
He promoted a square deal for labor by using arbitration to settle the anthracite coal strike of 1902
Roosevelt ran as the progressive or bull moose candidate for president in the 1912 presidential election
Woodrow Wilson
Wilson was a vigorous reformer who launched an all-out assault on high tariffs, banking problems, and the trusts
Wilson supported the federal reserve act of 1913
this land mark act established a system of district banks coordinated by a central board. The new federal reserve system made currency and credit more elastic
Reformers and suffragettes 1865-1920
Jane Addams
Jane Addams is best known for founding hull house in Chicago. Hull house and other settlement houses were dedicated to helping the urban poor
settlement-house workers established day nurseries for working mothers, published reports condemning deplorable housing conditions, and taught literacy classes
Carry Nation was one of the best known and most outspoken leaders of the WCTU(women's christian temperance union
The WCTU convinced many women that they had a moral responsibility to improve society by working for prohibition
Dorothea Dix worked tirelessly on behalf of the mentally ill
Ida B Wells-Barnett Was an African American civil rights, and women's rights activist noted for her opposition against lynching
Women reformers were also active in the following progressive era Movements;
CHILD labor legislation at state level
campaigns to limit the work hours for women and children
Women and the Work Place
During the late nineteenth (1800s) and twentieth (1900s)centuries, the majority of female workers employed outside the home wre young and unmarried
Women were employed as:
domestic (home)servants
Garment (clothing) workers
cigar makers
Women were rarely employed as:
Black Americans during the progressive era 1897-1917
During the progressive Era W.E.B Du Bois emerged as the most influential advocate of full political, economic, and social equality for black americans
Du Bois founded the National Association for the Advancement of color people (NAACP)
Du Bois opposed the implementation OF Booker T Washington's program for black progress. Du Bois supported Cooperation and integration with the whites. not separatism
The NAACP focused on using the courts to achieve equality and justice

THE birth of a nation film
The kkk first emerged during radical reconstruction1865-1877
D.W Griffith's epic film "the birth of a nation" became controversial because it depicted kkk activities as heroic and commendable
Birth of a nation played a role in the resurgence of KKK during the progressive era
kkk favored white supremacy
Imperialism and World War 1
General causes of american imperialism
sensational stories published by "yellow journalists
the new navy policy promoted by Theodore roosevelt
example of european imperialism in Africa
emphasis of social darwinism(survival of fittest)
unlike manifest destiny, imperialism included the idea of moral improvement by bringing the blessings of civlization to less technologically advanced people
Spanish-American war
battleship of Maine "mysteriously" sunk in havana harbor
a circulation of sensational headlines and lurid stories in the "yellow journalism" newspapers, arousing public support for a war to liberate Cuba from spanish control
Territorial acquisitions:
as a result of the war, Spain relinquished control of Puerto Rico, Cuba, Guam, and the Philippines to the United States
by establishing a protectorate over Cuba, the united states began implementing an imperialist foreign policy
Debate over annexing( adding to one's self) the Philippines
anti imperialism league opposed annexation arguing that it violated America's lonst-established commitment to the principles of self-determination and anti-colonialism
Supporters of annexation argued that America had a moral responsibility to "civilize " the islands
The roosevelt corollary to the monroe doctrine 1904
President Theodore Roosevelt worried that the Dominican Republic and other latin american nations would default on debts owed to european banks, which might collateral to provoke european military intervention
Roosevelt issued the Roosevelt corollary to the Monroe doctrine to forestall european intervention
The Roosevelt Corollary claimed America's right to assume the role of " an international police power"
Taft and Dollar Diplomacy
President Taft believed he could use economic investments to bolster American foreign policy
Taft's attempt to use dollar diplomacy in Asia and Latin America achieved very little success
Dollar Diplomacy is the act of guaranteeing loans to foreign countries
The Open Door Policy
as china's Qing dynasty weakened, European powers carved out spheres of influence where they exercised political leverage and obtained exclusive commercial privileges
Although he knew he could not force the europeans to leave China, Secretary of State John Hay was determined to protect American missionaries and commercial interests
in 1899, Hay sent the nations with spheres of influence in a China a note calling for open access to china for american investment and commercial interest
known as the open door, the policy underscored America's commitment to free trade and opposition to obstacles that thwarted international commerce
The policy proposed to keep China open to trade with all countries on an equal basis, keeping any one power from total control of the country, and calling upon all powers, within their spheres of influence, to refrain from interfering with any treaty port or any vested interest, to permit Chinese authorities to collect tariffs on an equal basis, and to show no favors to their own nationals in the matter of harbor dues or railroad charges
Road to War
American Neutrality:
President Wilson sought to distance America from world war 1 by issuing a proclamation of neutrality
Wilson's policy of neutrality was consistent with America's traditional policy of avoiding European entanglements
Wilson insisted that all belligerents(nations involved in war) respect American neutral rights on the high seas
German challenge to American Neutrality
faced with a stalemate in trenches across france and a british blockade, Germany launched a campaign of unrestricted submarine warfare in early February 1917
German foreign secretary, Arthur Zimmerman, sent a secret telegram to the german minister in Mexico. Intercepted by British intelligence, the telegram asked Mexico to join a military alliance against the united states. In return Germany promised to help mexico recover territories it had lost following the mexican war
Wilson's war message:
Wilson accused the germans of violating freedom of the seas, killing innocent americans, and interfering with mexico
Wilson galvanized public opinion by calling on america to launch a noble crusade "to make the world safe for democracy"
The Black Migration
Causes of the migration:
Jim Crow Laws denied African Americans their rights as citizens and forced them to endure poverty and systematic discrimination
Beginning with World War 1, the wartime demand for labor attracted African Americans to cities in the north and west. Thus resulting in a mass exodus from the rural south
The committee on public information
The committee on public information used propaganda to arouse public support for the war and stifle dissent
Americans were persuaded to buy war bonds and believe that Germany was a particularly barbarous nation
World War 1
Many alliances between nations
(Immediate Cause) Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria in Sarajevo, causing a war between Austria and Serbia, as well as all of their allies
Treaty of versailles:
Wilson's fourteen points included a call for the following:
Open diplomacy
Freedom of the seas
the creation of an international organization to preserve the peace and security of its members
national self-determination for oppressed minority groups
( Did NOT INCLUDE recognition of allied economic territorial agreements made during the war or provisions to create the international monetary fund)
The Treaty of Versailles focused the blame, and debt of the war on Germany. Many of Germany's armies were forced to disband, and Germany was sued 33 billion dollars. However, Germany fought back against this claim, and with the assistance of hitler, and his imperialism, World War 2 was initiated.
Reasons the United States did not join the league of Nations
Wilson refused to compromise on the issue of America's unconditional adherence to the charter of the League of Nations. This hardened Senate opposition to the Treaty of Versailles
Opponents believed that the league would lead to further involvement in foreign wars
Senator Lodge was a skillful opponent of the league. The personal and political rivalry between Wilson and Lodge precluded any chance of compromise

The "Red Scare" of 1919-1920
The bolshevik revolution in russsia, led by lenin allowed the bolsheviks to overthrow the czar and seize power in russia
Widespread postwar labor strikes confused and frightened americans

The Palmer raids of 1919-1920
The Palmer raids were caused by the fear of communism nd radicalism
These raids were conducted against suspected communists and anarchists
The Palmer Raids disregarded basic civil liberties. For example, government agents in 33 cities broke into meeting halls and homes without search warrants. More than 4,000 people were jailed and denied counsel
The Roaring Twenties
Economic conditions:
During the 1920s, the standard of living rose, and more and more people moved to urban centers
Evidence of economic prosperity
Larger numbers of women and men working in office jobs
increased emphasis on the marketing of consumer goods
growing investment in the stock market
The assembly line production of Henry Ford's Model T enabled average American Families to purchase automobiles
Beginning in 1920, the number of children aged ten to fifteen who were in the industrial workforce began to decline
Signs Of Trouble
the least prosperous group in the 1920 consisted of farmers in the midwest and South
For American Farmers, the years 1921 to 1929 were a period of falling prices for agricultural products
Republican Politics
Republican Prosperity:
Republican presidents of the 1920 favored tax cuts for wealthy Americans
During the presidencies of Harding and Coolidge, the federal agencies created during the progressive era aided business
Foreign Policy:
Despite its isolationist position in the 1920s, the U.S government actively participated in decisions regarding international finance and the payment of war reparations
The kellog Briand Pact of 1928 was an international agreement in which 62 nations pledged to foreswear was as an instrument of policy
The washington Naval Conference was called to restrain the naval arms race among the united states, britain, japan, Italy, and france. They agreed to a specific number of battleships each nation could build
The united states responded to the economic crisis in Germany during the 1920 by adopting the Dawes plan
the plan rescheduled German reparation payments and opened the way for american private loans to Germany
The culture of modernism
The Arts:
The "lost generation of the 1920s"
key writers included in Sinclair Lewis and F. Scott Fitzgerald
they were called the lost generation because thy were disillusioned(disappointed) with American society during the 1920s
** Writers criticized middle-class materialism and conformity. For example, Sinclair Lewis criticized middle-class life in novels such As babbitt and Main Street
black musicians such as Joseph king Oliver, W.C Handy, and "jelly roll' Morton helped create jazz
Jazz was popular with the youth because it symbolized a desire to break with tradition
Mass Entertainment
Movies were the most popular form of entertainment
Led by baseball, sports became a "big business"
During the 1920s, long distance radio broadcasting became possible
Responses to Modernism
Religious Fundamentalism was an anti-liberal and anti-secular movement that gained strength throughout the 1920s
The Scopes Trial was an important test case
John T scopes was a high school biology teacher in Tennessee who was indicted for teaching evolution.This directly reflects the 1920s between fundamentalism and modernism
The 1920s was a dramatic expansion of the KKK due to Griffith's film the birth of a nation
the KKK was hostile toward immigrants, catholics, jews, and african americans
The National Origins Act of 1924
the primary purpose of the National origins act as to use quotas to restrict the flow of newcomers from southern and eastern Europe
the quotas established by the national origins act discriminated against immigrants from Europe. Mexican, and puerto rican migration into the united states increased because neither group was affected by the restrictive immigration acts
The struggle for equality
Harlem Renaissance
the Harlem renaissance thrived during the 1920s
The Harlem renaissance was an outpouring of black artistic and literary creativity who expressed pride in their african american culture
The Great migration
The migration of black americans from the rural south to the urban north and west continued
demand for industrial workers was the primary pull and the jim crow laws were the primary push
Marcus Garvey
a charismatic leader of the universal Negro Improvement association
Garveyism was identified with black pride, economic development, black nationalism, and pan-africanism
Women's struggle for equality
flappers symbolized the new freedom by challenging traditional american attitudes about women
Flappers favored short bobbed hair, smoked cigarettes, and even wore the new one-piece bathing suits
Women and the Workforce
Altough new jobs became available in offices and stores, the percentage of single women in the labor force declined
women, however, did not receive equal pay and continued to face discrimination in the professions
Margaret Sanger
An outspoken reformer who openly championed birth control for women
Decline of feminist movement:
Passage of nineteenth amendment
inability of women's groups to agree on goals
the decline of the progressive reform movement
The Great Depression and the New Deal 1929-1941
causes of the great depression
the consequences of the 1929 market crash
loss of confidence in the stock market
reduction in the output of manufactured goods
decline in investment in capital goods
overproduction and under consumption
companies overproduced consumer goods
consumers did not have enough money or credit to purchase these goods
Decline in farm prosperity
Depression of the prices of agricultural products during the 1920s was an important sign of economic weakness
International trade
Serious dislocations in international trade were a significant cause of the great depression
the Hawley-Smoot Tariff act raised tariffs, thus triggering a decline in trade
Hoover's economic policies
President Hoover believed that economic recovery of the United States Depended primarily on the business community
President Hoover approached the task of caring for unemployed workers by emphasizing the importance of private charities
President Hoover supported federal loans to private businesses and to state and local governments
President Hoover established the Reconstruction finance Corporation in a belated attempt to fight the great depression

Franklin Roosevelt and the New Deal
the three Rs were relief, recovery, and reform
Unlike Hoover, FDR favored direct federal relief to individuals
The New deal was a reform program that sought to restructure american capitalism rather than replace it
the first hundred days
all of the following were addressed during the first hundred days of the New Deal
restoring public confidence in the banking system(did not propose legislation that would nationalize the banks)
creating new jobs in the public sector to reduce unemployment
raising farm prices by restricting agricultural production
providing mortgage support for homeowners
Creating the tennesee valley authority as a model project to provide electricity, prevent floods, and serve as an experiment in regional planning
All of the following were passed during the first hundred days: civilian conservation corps, national recovery administration, agricultural adjustment act,, and tennessee vally authority
Farm Policy: Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)
The goal of THE AAA was to raise farm prices by limiting agricultural production
National industrial Recovery act (NRA)
The NRA sought to combat the great depression by fostering government-business cooperation. The NRA allowed businesses to regulate themselves through codes of fair competition
The Social Security Act of 1935: created a federal pension system funded by taxes on a worker's wages and equivalent contribution by employers
Wagner Act of 1935:
the Wagner act (also known as the national labor relations act) ensured workers' right to organize and bargain collectively
Impact of the New Deal
The new deal led programs were partially successful in reducing unemployment and reviving the economy
the new Deal led to the emergence of the democratic party as the majority party
the new deal helped african americans survive the great depression(however did not directly confront racial injustice)

It is important to remember that the united states did not fully emerge from the great depression until the massive military expenditures prompted by WW2
Kay things that the new deal did NOT include
integration of armed forces
sponsor equal rights amendment
programs to protect civil liberties of african americans
establish bureau of indian affairs
nationalize basic industries
provide legal recognition of unions for migrant workers
World War 2 1941-1945
Stimson Doctrine:
In 1931, the japanese invaded and conquered the chinese province of manchuria
The stimson doctrine declared that the united states would not recognize any territorial acqisitions achieved by force.
The failure of the united States and other powers to take any concrete action marked the failure of collective security
Neutrality Acts:
The neutrality Acts of the 1930s were expressions of a commitment to isolationism
the lend-lease program:
under the lend-lease program, President Roosevelt authorized the sale of surplus military equipment to the allies. The lend lease program was used primarily to help great britain and the soviet union resist nazi Germany
Pearl Harbor:
The Japanese war machine was dependent on shipments of oil,aviation, stell, and scarp iron from the united states. In the 1940s, the Roosevelt administration imposed the first of a series of embargoes on japan-bound supplies, freezing all japanese assets in thE U.s and halted all shipment of gasoline
The japanese attempted to thwart the embargo BY attacking the u.s fleet at pearl harbor and then seizing the oil supplies and other raw materials
The japanese attack On pearl harbor occurred after diplomatic Negotiations with the united states had reached a stalemate
After the attack on pearl harbor the U.S announced a strategy of first defeating Germany and then turning to a full scale attack on japan
The U.S renounced the right to intervene in Latin America, seeking greater cooperation with the nations of Latin America
the u.s also granted independence from the United states
THE BIG Three were Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin who demanded unconditional surrender of Germany and japan
Wartime mobilization of the economy
Military spending revived the U.S economy from the great depression
Price Controls
The government instituted direct price controls to halt inflation
the office of price administration established a nationwide rationing system for consumer goods such as coffee and gasoline
Women in the workplace
"Rosie the riveter" was a nickname given during World War 2 to American women who did industrial work in the 1940s
the war mobilization caused a significant movement of married women into the work force
Civil liberties and civil rights during wartime
the internment of japanese americans
Roosevelt ordered that all japanese americans living in the u.s be removed to "relocation centers" for the duration of the war, being viewed as potential security threats
Korematsu v United States:
the supreme court ruled that the constitutionality of the internment of japanese americans was a wartime necessity

The United States and the atomic bomb
the Manhattan project
President Roosevelt authorized the manhattan project
president Truman authorized the use of the atomic bomb on the japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki (the u.s was the only country possessing atomic bombs)
Truman's decision to use the atomic bomb
continuing to use conventional weapons ould result in the loss of thousands of american lives
using the atomic bomb would persuade the japanese to surrender so the soviets would not begin to intervene
The Cold War (moreover the cold era) 1945-1989
Truman and containment
Containment was foreign policy designed to contain or block soviet expansion
Containment was the primary U.s foreign policy from announcement of the Truman Doctrine to the fall of the Berlin Wall
The Truman Doctrine
President Truman was determined to block the expansion of soviet influence into Greece and turkey
On March 12, 1947, Truman asked congress for 400 million in economic aid for greece and turkey
Truman justified the aid by declaring that the united states would support " free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures.
WW2 left western Europe devastated and vulnerable to soviet influence
the marshall plan was a program of economic aid designed to promote the recovery of war torn Europe while also preventing the spread of communist influence
The nato Alliance
Ten western european nations joined with the united states and canada to form a defensive military alliance called the north atlantic Treaty Organization
the NATO alliance marked a decisive break from America's tradition of isolationism
The Berlin Airlift
Fearing a resurgent Germany, the soviet union cut off western land access to west Berlin, located deep within the soviet zone
president truman ordered a massive airlift of food, fuel, and other supplies to the beleaguered citizens of west berlin
the Berlin airlift marked a crucial and successful test of containment

Cold War in Asia
the "fall' of china
led by Mao Zedong, the chinese communists defeated the chinese nationalists and declared the people's republic of china both an independent and a communist nation
the collapse of nationalist china was viewed as a devastating defeat for america and its cold war allies.This resulted in:
the united states refusing to recognize new government in beijing
United states interpreted the chinese revolution as a part of a menacing communist monolith
contributed to the anit-communist hysteria in the U.S
Korean War
the Korean war began when North Korea invaded south korea in 1950
President Truman took advantage of a temporary soviet absence from the united nations security council to obtain a unanimous condemnation of north Korea as an aggressor. Korean war thus marked the first collective military action by the U.S
(please note that the korean war was fought UNDER U.N observation. The Vietnam war was not)
prior to the korean war african americans fought in segregated units

Vietnam War 1946-1963
following world war 2 the united states adopted a policy of containment to halt the expansion of communist influence
american involvement in vietnam grew out of the policy commitments and assumptions of containment
The french withdrawal:
Following World War 2, french continued to exercise influence and control over Indochina
The Viet Minh Defeated french, and the french withdrew from Vietnam in 1954
the united states refused to sign the geneva accords and soon replaced france as the dominant western power in indochina
The Domino effect
the united states believed that if one nation fell under communist control, nearby nations would inevitably also fall under communist influence
It was thought that if indo-china were to fall and if its fall led to the loss of all of southeast asia, then the united states might eventuall be forced back to Hawaii
Key cold war events
launched by the soviet in 1957, sputnik was the first earth-orbiting satellite
Sputnik stunned America and caused president eisenhower to establish the national aeronautics and space administration(NASA)
Sputnik made education an issue of national security. Congress responded by passing the national defense education act. This legislation significantly expanded federal aid to education by funding programs in mathematics, foreign languages, and the sciences
Diplomatic Crises:
Egypt seized the suez canal
castro gained control over cuba
the soviet union shot down an american U-2 spy plane
Joseph McCarthy was a U.S Senator who caught national attention by making sensational accusationsthat the U.S State Department was "thoroughly infested with communists"
McCarthyism is the making of public accusations of disloyalty without sufficient evidence
Senator Mccarthy played on the fears of americans that communists had infiltrated the state department and other federal agencies
Millions of american were forced to take loyalty oaths and undergo loyalty investigations
Senator McCarthy cynically used the climate of fear for his own political advantage
in 1954 McCarthy accused the U.S Army of being infiltrated by communist sympathizers
McCarthy's boorish conduct and lack of evidence turned public opinion against him. a few months later, the senate formally condemned him for 'conduct unbecoming a member."
Welcome to AP US History
Thank you for your interests in taking the AP United States History exam. The following study guide is composed of notes from my notebook; notes formulated from books, videos, and study programs I have analyized.
The following study guide is only a simple crash course to United States history and only covers material needed for the exam. I encourage you to broaden your knowledge of history beyond this study guide, in order to really have a strong grasp of our history.
The AP US History exam includes material only from 1492( the columbian era) to 1980.
The Crash Course youtube channel provides excellent supplemental material for the AP US History exam
Furthermore, the college board website provides course descriptions, an audit, a material outline, and previous tests (all accessible to you).
The AP US History exam does not require you to remember specific dates of events; just the events themselves. The AP US History exam doesn't require you to know any battles besides saratoga, and antietam.
Thank you again, and please share and new useful information with your classmates.
Answering Essay Questions
A common essay question strategy summery is as follows:
First, try to relax and remove your feelings of anxiety
Then plan an outline of your thesis and your follow up points
Think of some outside material not provided by the test to include in your essay
Make sure to wright neatly, and visibly
Begin by DIRECTLY answering the question without beating around the bush
Follow with a proper introduction to your thesis, and then continue by follow your essay outline
Make sure to acknowledge what your opponent's view on the subject is, and then begin to explain why your thesis is superior, and more reasonable
It may be wise to leave your strongest points for the first and last paragraphs
When concluding your thesis make sure to restate the question and your answer one final time
This may be the of my US History Study Guide, However, I encourage you to continue to learn more about history.
Through History, we can begin to understand the psychological development of this nation's ancestors and how they survived, prospered, evolved, and more importantly, how they came together to create a strong system of government.
It is important to know how these people thought, and why they thought that way.
Furthermore, it is important to understand how all the people before us fought to protect the liberties they believed god entitled them to.
Good Luck on your exam
and please take a look at:
Youtube's Crash Course: AP US History
College Board: US History Outline
Quizlet: US History Flash Cards

Important US Supreme Court Cases
marbury v madison 1803: established principle of judicial review

dartmouth college v woodward 1819: court ruled that the constitution protected contracts from state encroachments
the ruling safeguarded business enterprise from interference by state governments

worcester v georgia 1831 :the cherokee tribe was suing for jackson's attempt to remove them from their land and move them west in the trial of tears

dred scott v sanford 1857 :african americans were not citizzens and therefore could not petition he court
slaves could not be taken from their masters regardless of free or slave state

plessy v ferguson 1896: debated legality of segregated railroad cars in louisiana
created "separate butequal" accomodations

korematsu v united states1944 japanese were forced to detention camps and the supreme court held the decision as a war time necessity

brown v board 1954:the ruling reversed the separate but equal clause
declared racially segregated schools unequal under the 14th
most important case in terms of civil rights

baker v carr: established one man one vote
required the reapportionment of districts for some state legislatures

griswold v connecticut: struck down a state law prohibiting the use of contraceptives(abortion)
court proclaimed a right to privacy

miranda v arizona: controversial warren court decision establishing a defendant's Miranda rights
a court ruled that no confession could be made admissible unless a suspect had been made aware of his or her rights

roe v wade: supreme court supported abortion rights for women
Important acts and legislation
Navigation Acts 1651: put mercantilism into practice. colonial products could only be shipped to England

Sugar Act 1764: taxed sugar and molasses

Stamp Act :taxed all paper goods

coercive acts: known as the intolerable acts

kansas nebraska act: repealed missouri compromise
allowed both nebrasska and kansas to become a slave or free state based on popular sovereignty

homestead act: encouraged the settlement of the western frontier
gave small fee for living on a land in the west after 5 years

chinese exclusion act: preveneted chinese immigrants from immigration into ameria

Dawes act: assimilated native americans into mainstream american society

Federal Reserve act: created a central federal reserve board and established 12 district banks

national origins act :to restrict the flow of newcomers from southern and eastern europe
established immagrant quotas

national industrial recovery act: the national industrial recovery act (NRA) sought to combat the great depression by fostering government business cooperation
the act allowed businesses to regulate themselves through codes of fair competition

neutrality acts: acts were expressions of a commitment to isolationism
(washington's farewell address)

social security act: part of the new deal program of reforms
created a federal pension system funded by taxes on a worker's wages and by an equivalent contribution by enployers

wagner act: ensured workers the right to organize and bargain collectively

lend lease act :provided military supplies to allies

taft hartley act: to curb the power of labor unions

federal highway act:created interstate highway system
played key role in promoting suburban growth

united states immigration and nationality act: this act abolished the national origins act ( which severely restricted immigration)

compromise of 1850: 1) The Fugutive Slave Act, which required citizens of free territories to capture and return runaway slaves from the South 2) the nixing of the Wilmot Proviso, which would have banned slavery in the Southwest. Now the anti-slavery forces didn't give away the store: they got California as a free state, and they got the sale of slaves banned in the District of Columbia.

compromise of 1877: wherein the South obtained the ability to launch Jim Crow subjugation of now-free -African-Americans for the better part of a century in exchange for dropping its efforts to steal the 1876 presidential election. Now pro-equality forces didn't give away the store: They got a leader from within the "Party of Lincoln" -- and a pro-black education activist at that -- as president.
Important Ideologies
Sectionalism is loyalty to the interests of one's own region or section of the country, rather than to the country as a whole

Democracy a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them

Mercantilism the economic theory that trade generates wealth and is stimulated by the accumulation of profitable balances, which a government should encourage by means of protectionism.

Sovereignty supreme power or authority. (self governing state)

Isolationism a policy of non-participation in international economic and political relations

Nationalism The feeling of pride, loyalty, and protectiveness toward a country. Patriotism

Imperialism a policy of extending a country's power and influence through diplomacy or military force.

Social Darwinism the theory that individuals, groups, and peoples are subject to the same Darwinian laws of natural selection as plants and animals. The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.

Abolitionism a person who favors the abolition(abolishment) of a practice or institution, especially capital punishment or (formerly) slavery.

fascism an authoritarian and nationalistic right-wing system of government and social organization. (dictatorship)

Millennialism belief in a future golden age of peace, justice, and prosperity. ( second coming of christ

nativism a return to or emphasis on traditional or local customs, in opposition to outside influences. the policy of protecting the interests of native-born or established inhabitants against those of immigrants.

prohibition the action of forbidding something, especially by law.
(usually alcohol )

militarism the belief or desire of a government or people that a country should maintain a strong military capability and be prepared to use it aggressively to defend or promote national interests.

capitalism an economic and political system in which a country's trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state. (free market/enterprise)

confederation a league of independent states usually created by treaty but often later adopting a common constitution, confederations tend to be established for dealing with critical issues. a union of allies

federation A government structure in which some powers are given to the national government and other powers are reserved for more local governments.

Enlightenment a European intellectual movement of the late 17th and 18th centuries emphasizing reason and individualism rather than tradition.

Diplomacy the art of dealing with people in a sensitive and effective way
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