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Wars of Religion: 1559-1648
Transcript of Wars of Religion: 1559-1648
II. French Catholics vs. French Huguenots
III. Holy Roman Empire vs. German Protestantism
IV. English Anglicans vs. English Puritans Wars of Religion: 1559-1648 Spain's Catholic Crusade French Wars of Religion The most traumatic event in Europe's history until 1914 The Thirty Years' War (1618-1648) A Puritan Revolution Civil War in England Holy Roman Emperor Charles V
A Hapsburg 1556- "retires" after the Peace of Augsberg -Divides his lands Ferdinand
-Holy Roman Empire (Germany, Austria) Philip
-Spanish Netherlands The Escorial "Defender of the Faith" Defeats Ottoman Navy @ Lepanto (1571) Seeks to reimpose Catholicism upon England Philip married to Mary Tudor
("Bloody Mary") of England Tries to marry Elizabeth after Mary's death -Elizabeth = Protestant (Elizabethan Settlement)
-assists Sp. Netherlands in a revolt against Spanish rule 1588- Philip Decides to Invade England Disaster for Philip
-Beginning of the end of Spain's "Golden Age"
-Signals England's rise as a new power Dominance of the VALOIS dynasty challenged by the growth of the Huguenot (Calvinist) faith By 1560, as much as 40% of the French nobility was Huguenot Valois King Henry II
Died in 1559 Catherine de Medici -serves as regent for her 3 sons
-a "politique" Henry's death lead to a 3-way struggle between the Valois and 2 other noble families for political and religious control of France Homework:
Watch the video on SchoolFusion about the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre Valois Catholic Moderates Guises ULTRA Catholic Bourbon Huguenot
(Protestant) "War of the 3 Henries" 1588- Bourbon + Valois vs. Guises Guises seize control of Paris
Valois King is killed --> had promised to pass the crown on to the Bourbons
Henry of Navarre (Bourbon) becomes Henry IV
Converts to Catholicism --> "Paris is worth a mass"
Issues the Edict of Nantes in 1589 (Henry remains privately Calvinist) 3-2-1 Summary (on an index card)
3 major facts/points
2 vivid images
1 HOT question Quick Facts:
Religious War --> Political War
Europe's last "religious war"
1/3-1/2 of German population killed
The first "international" war Background:
The HRE wants to consolidate his power by rolling back the Peace of Augsberg German Princes had created alliances for protection
The Protestant Union (North)
Catholic League (South) "Cuius regio, euius religio" --> "Whose the region, his the religion" Many nobles had converted to Calvinsm Phase I: The Bohemian Phase HRE quickly subdues the Calvinists in Bohemia Phase 2: The Danish Phase Protestant Danish forces intervene
HRE hires mercenary armies to subdue northern Protestant regions
Edict of Restitution (1629) Phase 3: The Swedish Phase Armies of Gustavus Adolphus take back what Protestants lost in the Danish phase
Push HRE back to Bohemia (rescinds the Edict of Restitution)
Adolphus killed in battle in 1634; HRE goes on the offensive Phase 4: The French Phase aka the "International Phase" Cardinal Richelieu-->Regent of France for KLXIII DOES NOT WANT a strong, unified Germany for a neighbor
Allies with the Protestants (why is this ironic?)
Spain intervenes on behalf of HRE (both monarchs are Hapsburgs)
Bloodiest phase of the war- most fighting in Germany Adolphus' armies represent a "Military Revolution" Gunpowder becomes the norm
"Modern" tactics (infantry, volleys)
Professional, trained armies PEACE OF WESTPHALIA (1648) Renews Augsberg--> Now you CAN be Calvinist in Germany!
Germany to remain politically and religiously divided until 1870 French
Dutch (The Netherlands)
Prussia (German Protestants Holy Roman Empire
The Pope (the Catholic Church) **Recognizes the political and religious sovereignty of nations** One scholar's summary of the 30YW: "Morally subversive, economically destructive, socially degrading, confused in its causes, devious in its course, futile in its result, it is the outstanding example in European history of meaningless conflict." Once again, ladies & gents, I give you Bob Hale For a recap/preview, I present Bob Hale Quick Facts: Like the other wars we've seen, this one has a religious AND a political dimension
Main issue = SOVEREIGNTY
Antagonists = The Stuart monarchs (Anglican/Catholic) vs. the English Parliament (Puritan-->Calvinist) axation Libert James I (aka James VI) Succeeds the last Tudor monarch
Firm believer in divine right theory
Rules from 1603-1625 Charles I rules from 1625-1649
absolutist at heart-->needs $$ for wars
Petition of Right (1628)
Dissolves Parliament (10 yrs), imposes fees (ship money) & fines
Calls Parliament (majority Puritan now) back in 1640 when Scots revolt is imminent Stuarts!! 1642- Puritan Parliament revolts against Charles Supporters of the Crown = "Royalists"
AKA "Cavaliers" vs. Supporters of Parliament- "Puritans"
AKA "Roundheads" Led by Oliver Cromwell Leads "New Model Army" to victory in 1649 Meanwhile, back in London, Cromwell's cronies have removed all non-puritans from Parliament. This is called "Pride's Purge"
The remaining all-Puritan Parliament becomes known as the "Rump Parliament" Charles flees to Scotland, Scots turn him over to Cromwell
"Rump Parliament" puts him on trial for treason, convicts him Whereas Charles Stuart, King of England, is, and standeth convicted, attainted, and condemned of high treason, and other high crimes; and sentence upon Saturday last was pronounced against him by this Court, to be put to death by the severing of his head from his body; of which sentence, execution yet remaineth to be done; these are therefore to will and require you to see the said sentence executed in the open street before Whitehall, upon the morrow, being the thirtieth day of this instant month of January, between the hours of ten in the morning and five in the afternoon of the same day, with full effect. And for so doing this shall be your sufficient warrant And these are to require all officers, soldiers, and others, the good people of this nation of England, to be assisting unto you in this service. Given under our hands and seals. Charles I is the first king in history to be executed by his own subjects 1649-1653:
Monarchy is abolished, England ruled as a republic
Cromwell pacifies the Irish & Scots
Cromwell becomes "Lord Protector" (dictator)
Strict moral codes enforced by the army
Cromwell dies, the Protectorate is dissolved Weee're baaaaaack!! --> Monarchy is restored in 1660 A state is sovereign when it has a monopoly on force and on justice within clearly defined boundaries