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Transcript of Elinor Ulman
In 1910 in Baltimore, Maryland
Years of Service: 60s - 80s
Professional Identification: A.T.R., HLM
B.A. in English Literature
B.S. in Landscape Architecture
Learning while traveling...
Studied oil painting in France from 1932-34
Studied brush painting in China from 1934-36
Studied landscape architecture in the U.S. in 1943
In 1961, Ulman wrote an article called Art Therapy: Problems of Definition.
In it she compared and contrasted Edith Kramer's "art as therapy" against Margaret Naumberg's "art psychotherapy" model.
Elinor Ulman did not seem to side with either model.
"Anything that is to be called art therapy, must genuinely martake of both art and therapy."
How did Ulman get involved in Art Therapy?
From 1942 to 1953, she worked as a draftsman, cartographer, and technical illustrator, while beginning to explore the process of teaching art to handicapped children and offering art materials to participants at an alcoholic rehabilitation program.
District of Columbia General Hospital
Emboldened by these experiences, Elinor Ulman focused her energy and efforts on establishing art therapy at the D.C. General Hospial where she developed the Ulman Personality Assessment Procedure from 1955 to 1965.
Ulman Personality Assessment Procedure
The Ulman Personality Assessment Procedure began when the hospital's chief psychologist began sending patients to Ulman so that she could use art as a method of providing quick diagnostic information.
What Elinor Ulman came up with...
A patient was asked to complete a series of drawings in one session and each drawing had a specific directive.
The materials used in this test were four pieces of bogus paper and a set of 12 hard chalk pastels.
- Ulman did not develop a standardized rating system for the UPAP, but did make recommendations for future research
- Instead of focusing on the content if the pictures, that "...form and its correlation with personal characteristics" might enhance reliability in the use of art based assessment
A scribble is created while the client is looking away. Next, the client is asked to create a picture out of the scribble.
Contributions to Art Therapy
Bulletin of Art Therapy
- Published with her own money
- Name changed to the American Journal of Art Therapy in 1979
- For 12 years, Ulman's journal was the only one in art therapy
- Art Therapy: Problems of Definition (1961)
- The Judgement of Psychopathology from Paintings (1967)
- Art Therapy in Theory and in Practice (1975)
- Art Therapy in the United States (1978)
- Art Therapy Viewpoints (1980)
Organization of fights and fighters...
"I think I have a reputation for being a fighter. In fact, I was accused of liking to fight, and I don't think I like to fight. But when doing what I want to do involves a fight, I'd rather go down fighting than give up. If I lose a battle, I lose a battle. But if I don't fight, then I always think..."
Elinor Ulman had a keen interest and a belief in the importance of rigorous training in the field of art therapy which, at times, led her to engage in vehement debate.
December 11, 1991
Elinor Ulman "died peacefully in her chair in her apartment" in Washington D.C.
"It is not often that someone comes along who is a true friend and great writer. [Elinor] was both."