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Chapter 22: Fighting for the Four Freedoms: World War II

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Joseph Floyd

on 7 March 2016

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Transcript of Chapter 22: Fighting for the Four Freedoms: World War II

Chapter 22: Fighting for the Four Freedoms: World War II
Fighting World War II
Good Neighbors
The Road to War
War in Europe
During 1930s U.S. preoccupied with economic crisis, international relations played minor role
In 1933, FDR administration recognized Soviet Union
Good Neighbor Policy of non-intervention in Latin America
Fall in prices of Latin American mineral, agricultural exports, rise of populist-nationalist dictators
U.S. support for dictatorships
Anastasio Somoza in Nicaragua, Rafael Trujillo in Dominican Republi
Nationalization of Mexico's oil industry
Secretary of State Cordelle Hill and Rafael Trujillo
Anastasio Somoza
Roosevelt and Brazilian President Getulio Vargas
Ominous developments in Asia and Europe overshadowed events in Latin America
Benito Mussolini established first Fascist state in Italy, Adolf Hitler elected chancellor of Germany in 1933
Occupied Rhineland, annexed Austria, Czechoslovaka in 1938-39
Great Britain, France follow policy of "appeasement"
Japan invaded Manchuria, northern China in 1931, war against China in 1937
Bombing of Shanghai, Nanjing massacre of 300,000 people
Isolationism
To most Americans, threat from German and Japanese aggression seemed distant
Hitler had many admirers in U.S.
Charles Lindbergh a frequent guest of Hitler's
Henry Ford held anti-Semitic views, did business with Nazi Germany
Americans of German and Italian descent celebrated expansion of national power
German American Bund an American Nazi organization
Irish-Americans were anti-British
Isolationists in Congress
Beginning in 1935, neutrality acts banned sale of arms to countries at war
German-American Bund
Charles Lindbergh at America First Rally
Mussolini and Hitler
Japanese troops in Shanghai
German troops in Prague, Czechoslovakia, 1939
Henry Ford receiving Grand Cross of the German Eagle
German troops in Paris, June 1940
German tank crossing Aisne river, France
1938 Munich Agreement permits Nazi German annexation of Czechoslovakia
Germany signs non-agression pact with Soviet Union
Blitzkreig (lighting warfare) overruns Poland, Norway, Belgium, Netherlands, France
By June 1940 Britain virtually alone fighting Germany
Congress in 1940 allowed sale of arms to Britain on "cash and carry" basis
America First Committee opposed U.S. involvement
Leadership included Henry Ford, Father Charles Coughlin, Charles A. Lindbergh
FDR re-elected for unprecedented third term
In December 1940 Roosevelt announced United States would be "arsenal of democracy"
Lend-Lease Act authorized military aid to Britain and China
Pearl Harbor and the War in the Pacific
In November 1941 intercepted Japanese messages revealed an assault in the Pacific was imminent
U.S. imposed oil embargo on Japan after Japanese invasion of Indochina (Vietnam)
On December 7, 1941 Japanese planes bombed U.S. Naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawai'i
2,000 servicemen killed, 187 planes, 18 ships destroyed
In early 1942, Japan enjoyed unbroken string of victories
Conquered Burma, Dutch East Indies, Philippines, Guam and other Pacific islands
78,000 Americans and Filipinos surrender in Philippines-largest surrender in U.S. military history
U.S. Naval victory at Battle of Midway in June 1942 turned tide of the war
"Island hopping" campaigns drove Japanese from fortified islands like Guadalcanal
War in Europe
By spring of 1943, British and Americans destroyed German submarine fleet in Atlantic
Allied invasions of Sicily, Italy in July-September 1943
Uprising overthrew Fascists, Germany occupied most the country
Major U.S. involvement began on June 6, 1944, D-Day
200,000 American, British, Canadian soldiers landed in Normandy, in northwest France
Largest land-sea military operation in history
Most of the land fighting in Europe on Eastern Front
German invasion of Soviet Union in 1941, siege of Stalingrad in 1942 turns tide of war
Soviet Army advances after the Battle of Kursk in July 1943
At least 20 million Russians died, 10 million of 13.6 million German casualties
D-Day Invasion, Archival Newsreel Footage, June 9, 1944
Color Film of Pearl Harbor attack, Dec. 7, 1941
The Home Front
Mobilizing for the War
Business and the War
Labor in Wartime
Fighting for the Four Freedoms
The Fifth Freedom
Women at War
Bob Hope and Frances Langford, USO Show, Bougainville, South Pacific
World War II transformed the role of national government
Federal agencies (War Production Board, War Manpower Commission, Office of Price Administration) allocate labor, control shipping, manufacturing quotas, fix wages, prices and rents
Number of federal workers rose to 4 million
Government built housing for workers, forced civilian industries to retool for war production
Marketed billions of dollars of war bonds, increased taxes, withheld income taxes
GNP rose from $91 to $241 billion, unemployment fell to 2%
Shift change at Kaiser Shipyard Richmond, California
Bell Bomber Plant, Marietta, Georgia
Douglas Aircraft plant, Long Beach, California
Thousands of aircraft, 100,000 armored vehicles, 2.5 million trucks rolled off assembly lines
Government-sponsored research produced new inventions, ex. synthetic rubber, radar, jet engine, early computers
Wartime industries improved image of business
West Coast focus of military-industry production
Government invests billions of dollars in shipyards of Seattle, Portland, San Francisco, steel plants, aircraft factories of southern California
2 million Americans moved to California
Military factories, shipyards in Southeast, shift from agricultural to industrial economy
Wartime agreement between government, business, labor
Union membership reaches unprecedented level
In 1944, Montgomery Ward defied pro-union order, government seized headquarters, evicted president
In 1945, union membership at one-third of non-farm labor force
Highest portion in U.S. history
Montgomer Ward Chairman Sewell Avery carried out of Chicago office
World War II remembered as the Good War, time of national unity in pursuit of noble goals
All wars require mobilization of public opinion
"Freedom" helped to "sell" World War II
In 1941, administration celebrated 150th anniversary of the Bill of Rights
Four Freedoms speech by FDR
Freedom of speech, freedom of worship, freedom from want, freedom from fear
Under eye of War Advertising Council, private companies promoted wartime patriotism
Advertisements urged Americans to buy war bonds, guard against revealing secrets, grow "victory gardens" to send food to armed forces
National Association of Manufacturers, company advertisements promoted fifth freedom of free enterprise
Unprecedented mobilization of "womanpower" to fill industrial jobs vacated by men
Advertising celebrated Rosie the Riveter, female industrial worker
By 1944, women more than 1/3 of labor force
350,000 women in auxiliary military units
On the West Coast, 1/3 of workers in aircraft manufacturing, shipbuilding were women
Women forced unions to confront issues of equal pay, maternity leave, child care facilities
Government, employers, unions depicted women's work as temporary necessity
Advertisements assumed return to traditional family life after war ended
Women workers in Douglas Aircraft plant Long Beach, California
Rosie the Riveter
World War II the most widespread and violent war in history
60-85 million dead
Involved the majority of world's nations, in two opposing military alliances, Allies and Axis
As war began in Europe, Americans divided over the countries' involvement
U.S. enters World War II after Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor
Two-front war against Japan and Germany
Although no battles occurred on North American mainland, World War II affected all phases of American life
Monumental production effort to provide material needed to fight leads to important social and economic changes
Hollywood All-Star War Bonds Rally
Towards an American Century
"The Way of Life of Free Men"
The Road to Serfdom
Road to Serfdom
(1944) a surprise best-seller by Austrian-born economist Frederich von Hayek
Warned that governmental efforts to direct the economy were a threat to individual liberty
Argued that Nazism and Communism had common roots
Western democracies abandoned economic freedom, essential for personal and political freedom
Came at time when wartime production, conflict with Nazism revived belief in the virtues of capitalism
Revival of
laissez-faire
(free market) economic thought, rise of modern conservatism
As Congress dismantled parts of New Deal, liberal Democrats unveiled plans for post-war economic policy enabling Americans to enjoy freedom from want
National Resources Planning Board offered blueprint for peacetime economy based on full employment, expanded welfare state, American standard of living
FDR called for Economic Bill of Rights in 1944
Servicemen's Readjustment Act or GI Bill of Rights extended array of benefits to veterans (unemployment pay, scholarships, low-cost mortgage loans)
By 1946, more than 1 million veterans were attending college on GI Bill
Almost 4 million veterans received home mortgages
Henry Wallace, Century of the Common Man
Prospect of an affluent future a point of unity between supporters of the New Deal and conservatives, business and labor
To some extent united two blueprints for post-war world
Henry Luce
The American Century
(1941) urged U.S. to embrace its role as dominant power
American values would underpin global triumph of "free economic enterprise"
Vice President Henry Wallace offered response in "The Price of World Victory" address
Century of the common man, end of imperialism, humanizing capitalism, ending poverty
Both reflected idea that American experience should serve as a model for all countries
Henry Luce
Henry Wallace
Visions of Postwar Freedom
Calls for the U.S. to embrace leadership role
Promise of economic abundance in post-war world
Calls for greatly expanded social welfare state
Others championed "free enterprise"
FDR signing the GI Bill
The American Dilemma
Patriotic Assimilation
The Bracero Program
Indians during the War
Asian Americans and Japanese Internment
Blacks and the War
Birth of the Civil Rights Movement
The War and Race
An American Dilemma
Newsreels of Japanese American Internment Camps
George Takei describing internment
Braceros in the field
Zoot Suit Riots
U.S., Mexican governments agree to the
bracero
program
Tens of thousands of Mexican contract laborers took up jobs as agricultural and domestic workers
More than 4.5 million Mexicans enter U.S. under labor contract
Slightly larger number arrested for illegal entry by Border Patrol
Wartime employment opened new opportunities for Mexican-Americans
500,000 served in armed forces
"Zoot suit" riots of 1943, sailors, police in Los Angeles attacked Mexican-American
pachucos
Contrast between rhetoric of freedom, realities of discrimination led to demands for civil rights, complaints of job discrimination
Ira Hayes, Pima Indian Marine, one of six men who raised the flag at Iwa Jima
Navajo code-talkers
War brought American Indians closer to mainstream American life
Some 25,000 served in armed forces
Navajo code-talkers transmitted messages in native language
Tens of thousands of Indians left reservations for jobs in war industries
Some Indian veterans took advantage of GI Bill to attend college
Reservations did not share in prosperity
More than 50,000 Asian-Americans fought in armed forces
With China an ally, in 1943 Congress established quota for Chinese immigrants
Image of Chinese bravely defending country against Japanese aggression called into question racial prejudice
Attack on Pearl Harbor produced unprecedented hatred of Japanese-Americans
Portrayed in propaganda as subhuman
Executive Order 9066 ordered relocation of all persons of Japanese descent from the West Coast
100,000 people-nearly two-thirds U.S. citizens (American-born
nisei
) removed to internment camps, Japanese in Hawai'i not interned
Internees subjected to quasi-military discipline,
Korematsu v. U.S.
upheld internment
20,000 Japanese-Americans joined armed forces from camps, another 13,000 from Hawai'i
Japanese-American soldiers serve with distinction in Europe
In 1988 Congress apologized, $20,000 in compensation for survivors
Wartime message of freedom sign of transformation of status of African-Americans
U.S. segregation, cited by Nazi Germany as model
Red Cross refused to mix blood of blacks, whites
Objections from scientist Charles Drew, pioneered techniques of storing plasma
700,000 black migrants move to the North and West seeking industrial jobs
In 1943 race riot in Detroit left 34 dead,
More than 1 million blacks served in armed forces in segregated units
Army restricted black enlistees, navy accepted blacks only as waiters, cooks
Black soldiers had to give up seats of accommodate Nazi prisoners
Black veterans faced discrimination when they sought GI Bill benefits
Black soldiers, Battle of the Bulge
Munitions worker
Sign protesting planned government housing for black workers, Detroit, 1943
Soong Mei-ling, wife of Chinese president Chang Kai Shek
Japanese internment camp, Nevada
Japs Keep Moving, Hollywood Protective Association
War years witnessed birth of civil rights movement
Angered at exclusion of African Americans from war industries, labor leader A. Philip Randolph called for March on Washington in July 1941
Roosevelt issued executive order banning discrimination in defense jobs
By 1944 more than 1 million blacks, 300,000 women, held manufacturing jobs
NAACP grew from 50,000 to 500,000 members
Double-V, victory over Germany and Japan and victory over racial segregation
Freedom for African-Americans meant end to discrimination, racial violence
Broad political coalition called for end to racial inequality
NAACP, American Jewish Congress advocated laws to ban discrimination in employment, housing
CIO unions organized black workers
Black militancy alarmed southern politicians
Progress slow, but measurable
National War Labor Board banned racial wage differences
In
Smith vs. Allwright
(1941) Supreme Court outlawed all-white primaries
Navy admitted small numbers of black sailors, integration of a few army units
An American Diemma
(1944) by Swedish social scientist Gunnar Myrdal described how racism was entrenched in law, politics, economics and social behavior
Concluded war would change status of blacks
Proposals for peaceful change
Growth of black internationalism
African American leaders like W.E.B. DuBois, Paul Robeson came into contact with future leaders of African independence movements
Outlook linked plight of African-Americans with people of color throughout the world
The End of the War
Dawn of the Atomic Age
Planning the Post-War World
The Nature of the War
Peace, but Not Harmony
FDR reelected to fourth term in 1944, died of a stroke on April 12, 1945
Harry Truman faced question of whether to use atomic bomb against Japan
In 1940 FDR authorized Manhattan Project, top-secret program which developed atomic bomb, successfully tested in New Mexico in July 1945 realizaiton of Einstein's theory of relativity
On August 6, 1945, American plane dropped atomic bomb over Hiroshima, Japan
70,000 people died immediately, 140,000 died of radiation
On August 9 second atomic bomb dropped on Nagasaki
Use of bomb remains controversial
Warnings that invasion of Japan would cost up to 250,000 American lives
Evidence that Japan was on the verge of surrendering
Atomic bomb explosion, Los Alamos
Atomic bomb explosion, Hiroshima, Japan
Dropping of atomic bomb culmination of most violent war in history
Early in 1945 Allied firebombing of Dresden, Germany killed 100,000 people
Nearly same number died in firebombing of Tokyo
John Hershey published
Hiroshima
(1946), graphic account of horrors suffered by civilian population
Allied leaders Winston Churchill, Roosevelt, Stalin plan postwar world
"Big Three" meet in Tehran, Iran, in 1943 Yalta, Crimea in 1945
Britain, U.S. distrusted Stalin but Soviet forces occupied Eastern Europe
FDR, Churchill offered mild protest against Soviet plans to retain control over Baltic states
Stalin agreed to allow free elections in Poland
Intent on establishing Communist regimes in Eastern Europe
Conference in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, dollar replaced British pound
Two U.S. dominated financial institutions, World Bank, International Monetary Fund
Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin at Yalta
World War II produced radical redistribution of world power
Germany and Japan lay in ruins, Britain, France weakened, U.S., Soviet Union emerge as world's two superpowers
Soviet occupation of Eastern Europe, division of Germany led to the Cold War
Four Freedoms had unanticipated consequences
Disputes over freedom of non-white peoples living under colonial rule in Africa, Asia, status of African-Americans and other racial minorities in U.S. foretold more wars and social upheavals
Checkpoint Charlie, Berlin
Atlantic Charter For Whom? Chicago Defender (1943)
As 1945 began Allied victory assured
Failed German counter-atack at Battle of the Bulge in December 1944
In March Allied forces cross Rhine River
Soviets enter Germany in January, seize Berlin in March
U.S. forces in the Pacific capture Japanese islands of Iwo Jima, Okinawa, plans for attack on Japan
U.S., Soviet forces meet at Elbe River April 25, 1945
Attention to freedom as defining characteristic of American life had implications that went far beyond wartime mobilization
Nazism, theory of master race, discredited ideas of ethnic and racial inequality
Four Freedoms celebrated diversity and equality
New immigrant groups gain acceptance, status of African-Americans came to forefront of national life
US soldiers in Italy
Omaha Beach, D-Day
German prisoners-of-war
Donald Duck in Nazi Land (1943)
In 1941, Hitler embarked on "final solution," mass-extermination of "undesirable" peoples-Slavs, Gypsies, homosexuals and, above all, Jews
Death camps in German occupied Poland
Concentration camps in Germany for political prisoners, Soviet prisoners-of-war
Lalo Guerrero "Father of Chicano Music"-Los Chucos Suaves
Millions of Americans moved out of urban ethnic neighborhoods, rural areas into army and industrial plants
Patriotic assimilation differed from forced Americanization of WWI
Horrified by Nazis, scientists abandoned scientific racism
Ruth Benedict
Race and Racisms
(1942)
Anti-Semitism contributed to government's unwillingness to allow more than a handful of European Jews to find refuge in U.S.
Japanese-American soldiers from Hawai'i in Europe
Daniel Inouye, first Japanese-American congressman
761st Tank Batallion, "Black Panthers"
Lt. Jackie Robinson
D-Day, Saving Private Ryan (1998)
The Spirit of '43
War in the Pacific
Pearl Harbor
Guadalcanal
Frederich August von Hayek
Second Bill of Rights
Ad for GI Bill
Detroit Arsenal, Warren, Michigan
built by Crystler
Employment office, Cadillac tank plant
War Bonds ad, 1942
Raising the Flag on Iwo Jima
February 23, 1945
Norman Rockwell, Four Freedoms (1942)
Advertisement, Fortune magazine, 1944
Paul Robeson leading singing Star Spangled Banner in Oakland shipyard
Speaking tour of A. Philip Randolph
Double-V
White Primary, Texas
Bombing of Dresden
Hiroshima
Victims of atomic bomb
Full transcript