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Evaluating Teachers with Student Performance
Transcript of Evaluating Teachers with Student Performance
University of New England
EDU-703 School Reform
Dr. William Smith Meyers, Christopher
Sawyer, Marc The American educational system has been in a state of constant reform for over 30 years. As the United States continues to rank far behind other industrialized nations in academics, no one is sure why one of the most prosperous nations in the history of the world cannot adequately teach its youth. by In 2001, the United States Congress reauthorized the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965. Color coding by Jameson Parker Teacher Evaluations based on Student Progress Much of the teacher evaluation changes that have taken place over the recent years since the origination of No Child Left Behind legislation have been fueled by initiatives set forth by the National Governors Association (NGA) (Hazi & Arredondo Rucinski, 2009). These policies include a strong focus on the use of student test scores to drive teacher evaluation in place of methods that involve the collaboration of faculty and administration to improve their scores. The following states use student progress and gains on teacher evaluation Florida is a prime example of how NCLB has led to student test scores being tied to teacher evaluation and compensation.
E-Comp or “Effectiveness Compensation”
Tried to remove Principal input on teacher evaluation
Tried to link annual bonuses of teachers to student progress
Merit Award Program
Only 7 of 67 counties implemented the strategy
Award teacher’s bonuses based on Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) results
(Hazi & Arredondo Rucinski, 2009) Where it is already happening According to Hazi & Rucinski, 2009 Positive Impacts of Student Test Scores and Teacher Evaluations The No Child Left Behind initiative encourages states to develop approaches for evaluating teachers that incorporate student-achievement results through a data based approach. The American Federation of Teachers’ president, Randi Weingarten, has publicly endorsed including student achievement results along with other measures to evaluate teacher success (Fuhrman, 2010). Negative Impacts of Student Test Scores and Teacher Evaluations No Child Left Behind expects all students to be at a level of proficient, yet many districts across the US are not meeting this requirement and schools are being labeled
“in need of improvement” (NEA - Background)
If we want teacher evaluation (and salary) to be based on student performance, it is logical to think that it... Could discourage teachers from wanting to work in schools with the neediest students "Although both types of evaluation aim to measure teacher performance, the formative evaluation identifies ways to improve performance and the summative evaluation determines whether the performance has improved sufficiently such that the teacher can be rewarded. While each type is valuable, neither type can lead to reform on its own.” . Ostovar (2010) "There is no perfect way to evaluate teachers. Test scores are unreliable; so are principal observations, or peer evaluations, or analysis of videotapes, and so on. The only way to evaluate teachers fairly is to gather information from a variety of imperfect sources, each of which may contribute some information .” (Strauss, 2010) Practical (standardized-test results arrive months after teachers are evaluated each spring)
Psychometric (these tests aren’t valid for one-shot assessments of individual teachers, and it takes at least three years of value-added data for reliable patterns to emerge);
Staff dynamics (when individuals are rewarded, collaboration suffers);
Curriculum quality (low-level test preparation festers in a high-stakes environment);
Moral (turning up the heat increases the amount of cheating); and
Simple fairness (how can schools divvy up credit among all the teachers who contribute to students’ success? ). The use of student data has begun an era of false confidence in which teacher evaluation can occur from analysis of student data without monitoring the instructional strategies of the teacher. According the Hazi and Rucinski (2009) this leads to a belief that administrators can understand what is going on in the classroom without ever setting foot in it. Enter the age of ACCOUNTABILITY In an effort to improve our nations educational institutions, the federal government is now requiring states to hold individual schools accountable for student learning. Can we also use student performance to Evaluate our teachers? School Accountability Teacher Accountability Teacher Accountability President Bush signing the No Child Left Behind Act at Hamilton H.S. in Hamilton, Ohio. (Briefing Room | The White House) using student performance on standarized test scores using student performance on standarized test scores Does it work? Holding teachers accountable for student learning seems like a natural step in improving the way that students learn at all grade levels.
Researchers found that student performance improved in math—both during the year the teacher was evaluated and even more in the years following evaluation—compared with students assigned to the same teacher in the years before the teacher was reviewed (Sawchuk, 2011). (Baker et al, 2011) (Marshall, 2010) Other issues of using student test scores to evaluate teachers include: Also, standardized tests provide only a sample of student performance (Koppich, 2003) There is more to life than a test score So where to we go from here? Moving towards a solution... Combine methods of teacher evaluation Summative Formative “Summative evaluation aims to license, hire, give tenure to, promote, demote, or dismiss teachers." Ostovar (2010) Ostovar (2010) also suggests we "On the other hand, formative evaluation aims to encourage the professional growth and development of its teachers, shape performances by giving appropriate feedback, build new practices or alter existing practices. " Ostovar (2010) (Marshall, 2010) measured by student performance measured by observation of teacher by administrator States, districts, and schools all implement NCLB.
Proficiency is measured by student's performance on a standarized tests which are developed and administered by individual states. Hence the name... No Child Left Behind Failure of a school to meet "adequate yearly progress" (moving their students toward 100% proficiency) gives the school the label "in need of improvement".
This has several consequences, including School Accountability Having to provide school transfer options to their students
Paying for supplemental services
Restructuring (which could be as dramatic as laying off the entire school staff) Test-based assessments offer little guidance in designing teacher training and Professional Development (PD).
Test scores might tell us how our teachers are performing. But how do we make our teachers better? TES (The Cincinnati Evaluation System) An ongoing study for the past decade, the Cincinnati Evaluation System (TES), found that teachers’ evaluations from classroom observations are more valid in predicting the achievement gains of students in both math and reading. The findings of this system prove that evaluations should not be based on test scores alone. “We find that evaluations based on well-executed classroom observations do identify effective teachers and teaching practices” (Kane, Taylor, Tyler, & Wooten, 2011). During this process, teachers are observed and scored four times: three times by a peer evaluator and once by an administrator. Peer evaluators are experienced teachers with extensive training in this specific evaluation. They serve as evaluators on a full-time basis and then return to the classroom after three years. The system has four areas of observation.
Creating an environment for student learning
Teaching for student learning
Professional contributions outside the classroom environment The results presented in the Cincinnati Evaluation System (TES) “constitute the strongest evidence to date on the relationship between teachers’ observed classroom practices and the achievement gains made by their students” (Kane et al., 2011). Here is a long term study of a highly successful teacher evaluation program that combines the use of standardized test scores with observations of teacher practice. Teacher evaluation through a
variety of sources In conclusion Many methods of measuring teacher performance and effectiveness are being tested throughout the country.
While we may not know for sure what will last and what will pass, one thing we can know for sure.
Leaving us are the days when a teachers value is based on a pay grid with degrees earned on the column headings and years of service on the row heading. Baker, Eva Leon, Paul E. Barton, Linda Darling-Hammond, Edward Haertel, Helen F. Ladd, Robert Leon. Linn, Diane Ravitch, Richard Rothstein, Richard J. Shavelson, and Lorrie A. Shepard. "Problems with the Use of Student Test Scores to Evaluate Teachers." Economic Policy Institute. Web. 30 May 2011. <http://WWW.EPi.org>.
"Briefing Room | The White House." The White House. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 June 2011. <http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2002/01/images/20020108-1_20020108-1-515h.h
Fuhrman, S. (2010). Tying teacher evaluation to student achievement. Educational Weekly, Retrieved on June 1, 2011 from website: http://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2010/04/07/28fuhrman_ep.h29.html?tkn=YMCCC1Byf3d9I7t3EIlzepRzmNdN5EIavJXu&cmp=clp-sb-ascd
Hazi, H. M., & Arredondo Rucinski, D. (2009). Teacher evaluation as a policy target for improved student learning: A fifty-state review of statute and regulatory action since NCLB. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 17(5). Retrieved [date] from http://epaa.asu.edu/epaa/v17n5/.
Kane, T. J., Taylor, E. S., Tyler, J. H., & Wooten, A. L. (2011). Evaluating Teacher Effectiveness: Can Classroom Observations identify Practices that raise Achievement? Education Next, 11(3), Retrieved from http://educationnext.org
Koppich, Julia E. "Using Student Tests to Measure Teacher Quality." Untitled. Web. 30 May 2011. <http://www.caesl.org>.
Lee, J. 2006. Tracking achievement gaps and assessing the impact of NCLB on the gaps: An in-depth look into national and state reading and math outcome trends. Cambridge, MA: The Civil Rights Project at Harvard University.
"NEA - Background." NEA - NEA Home. Web. 31 May 2011. <http://www.nea.org/home/1248.htm>.
Marshall, K. (2010, August 30). Merit pay or team accountability? [Web log message]. Retrieved on June 1, 2011 from website: http://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2010/09/01/02marshall.h30.html?tkn=PONCje7mnKuem39zU1RoLB2fGyCdsb2cGu1r&cmp=clp-sb-ascd
Ostovar Namaghi, S. A. (2010). A data-driven conceptualization of teacher evaluation. The Qualitative Report, 15(6), 1504-1522. Retrieved from http://www.nova.edu/sss/QR/QR15-6/ostovarnamaghi.pdf
Sawchuk, S. (2011). Studies link classroom observations to student achievement. Educational Weekly, Retrieved on June 1, 2011 from website: http://blogs.edweek.org/edweek/teacherbeat/2011/04/studies_link_classroom_observa.html?print=1
Strauss, V. (2010, September 1). Should test scores be used at all for teacher evaluation?. The Washington Post, Retrieved on June 1, 2011 from website: http://voices.washingtonpost.com/answer-sheet/teacher-assessment/should-test-scores-be-used-at.html Bibliography Who did what... Christine Rooney - Research successful methods of teacher evaluation using student test scores.
Christopher Meyers - Research issues connected with teacher evaluation using student test scores.
Jameson Parker - Compiler of info, maker of prezi
Kristin Ortiz - Provided summary information of NCLB
Mark Sawyer - Research issues connected with teacher evaluation using student test scores.
Stephanie Norris - Research impact of teacher evauations using student test scores on NCLB ”The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), the so-called nation’s report card of student achievement, provides information on the achievement gaps among different racial and socioeconomic groups in core academic subjects,” (Lee, 2006,pg.10). The stated goal of this legislation is to have all children reach 100% proficiency by 2014,