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Julie Brown

on 12 May 2010

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Transcript of Africa

Africa Physical Geography and Climate Rugged
Vast deserts
Tropical rainforests
Harsh climates
Great Rift Valley
Large land area

Prevents cultural contact and cultural diffusion
Isolates culture groups
Fosters cultural diversity Geldof
Effects on
Development Effects on People Transportation is difficult which restricts trade between groups
Technology is not applicable across different regions (the wheel isn't helpful in the dense forest)
Communications between groups are limited
Limited arable land available
Climate isn't conducive to large numbers of people living in one area (lack of water and arable land)
Underpopulation (lack of a labor force)
European Colonization Culture Government Economic Development Languages
Conflicts between ethnic groups Traditional governments ignored
European nation states
Europeans controlling Africans
Few Africans in leadership roles in the government
Africans subserviant to Europeans
European governments did and took what they wanted and didn't pay attention to traditions, ethnic groups, historic boundaries, etc. Europeans were only interested in the natural resources the colonies could provide
Limited investment in infrastructure (roads, railroads, running water, buildings, education, etc.
Africans used as slaves in their own lands--people used as tools to gain wealth for the European colonial power (King Leopold of Belgium used slaves and resources to amass a PERSONAL fortune)
Slave trade across the Atlantic took the healtiest people from the continent and separated families and tribes
Colonial and modern trade rules established prevent further economic development (high tariffs on finished products limits trade to raw materials or agricultural products) Migration Trends within Africa Rural to Urban
Currently 65% rural
By 2030 65% urban
Poverty of Opportunity
Poverty of Circumstance Problems related to migration No jobs
Housing shortages
Education--no room in the schools
Shortage of doctors, hospitals, and medicines
Lack of sanitation facilities
Government cannot afford to add to these
Foreign Aid Skeptics complain that much of the money given to help Africans has been stolen by corrupt African leaders. They say that stolen aid money helps keep such leaders in power, and that aid that does get to the people undermines their ability to fend for themselves.

Advocates of aid to Africa often point out that, because the continent's poverty is so deep and its problems are so great, even a relatively small amount of help can accomplish a great deal. They point to cheap treatments to limit the spread of HIV/AIDS, and to others that prevent river blindness and malaria, as success stories in Africa.

Chronic malnutrition that makes people vulnerable to rises in food prices. Talk of famine backed by pictures of starving children may help NGOs raise funds, but it does nothing to address these basic problems Countries either have an aid bonanza or nothing. There does not seem to be a middle ground A bonanza often undermine self-reliance axiomatic that flooding the market with food drives down the price for local farmers Aid can also encourage misguided policies--
this has been the case in Ethiopia, where farmers are not allowed to own land.
Aid could be made to work better in a number of ways:
Providing compensation to local farmers
Making sure aid stops when things improve
Giving hungry families cash rather than food
But the most effective move would be to focus less on emergencies and more on chronic problems. Improving access to clean water and distributing re-hydration tablets would help eradicate diarrhea, which drains nutrients away and makes children particularly vulnerable.

Education Education Empowers people
Allows people to think for themselves
Harder for others to control
Gives people power to choose Creates change
Learn new technologies
Connect with the global economy

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