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RUBIES Test-Taking Strategy
Transcript of RUBIES Test-Taking Strategy
RUBIES is a ___test-taking___ strategy that is proven to help you improve your score on ANY test. It helps you figure out what ___information___ to focus on while you read a long passage so you can select the best answer! How do I use RUBIES?
All you need to do is remember what RUBIES stands for:
R = __Read___ the question first (skip the passage!)
U = ___Underline____ the key words in the question
B = ___Bracket___ the key words in the passage or chart/table (AFTER! reading each paragraph)
I = ___Identify__ the key concept being assessed
E = __Eliminate__ at least TWO wrong answer choices
S = ___Select___ the best answer Scientists Explore an Aspect of Fish Migration
Toxic pollutants from agriculture and industry have been found worldwide, even in areas that are far from pollution sources. Until now, scientists have blamed air currents for spreading toxins far from their sources. However, a [recent study indicates that fish can transport toxins over long distances.]
Scientists developed this hypothesis when toxins were mysteriously found in a remote lake in Sweden. A team of scientists from [Lund University hypothesized that salmon accumulated and stored toxins in their fatty tissues] when they were in the Baltic Sea. The salmon migrated upstream, spawned, and then died in the lake, [releasing toxins as their bodies decomposed.]
To test this hypothesis, the scientists traveled to Alaska, where they carried out an experiment in two neighboring lakes, Lower Fish Lake and Round Tangle Lake. [Lower Fish Lake is open to migrating salmon, while Round Tangle Lake is closed to migrating salmon] because of numerous waterfalls and rapids. A small fish, the arctic grayling, lives in both lakes. Fish eggs are a large part of its diet. When the scientists examined the arctic grayling from both lakes, the [arctic grayling in Lower Fish Lake had more than twice the concentration of toxins in their bodies as the arctic grayling in Round Tangle Lake.] Since both lakes are exposed to similar levels of air pollution, the difference in toxin levels found in the arctic grayling must be due to other factors.
In a related experiment, [scientists caught salmon throughout their migration and tested their fatty tissues for toxins.] Even though the fatty tissue deposits were gradually used up, toxin levels remained about the same throughout the 400-kilometer journey up the Copper River from the Gulf of Alaska to Lower Fish Lake. [Instead of metabolizing the toxins, the salmon stored them in other body tissues that also contain fat, and in their eggs.]
Both of these studies [support the hypothesis that migrating salmon can transport pollutants to new areas.]
According to the passage, what question is being asked by Lund University researchers? According to the passage, what question is being asked by Lund University researchers? Key Concept: Scientific Method A is Wrong because the focus of the passageis on toxins, not how salmon migrate B is wrong because they hypothesized that the salmon carried pollutants while they migrated. They didn't think the pollution was affecting the migration. C is wrong because the researchers already knew that fish eggs were a large part of the arctic grayling's diet. D is correct because the focus of the passage is about how toxins can be spread and the researchers hypothesized that salmon spread the toxins and performed experiments to prove that. Key Concept: Scientific Method Observation: Fish might be able to transport toxins Hypothesis: If salmon can store the toxins in their body, then the toxins will be released after they die. Experiment: Compare toxins in two lakes. One lake has migrating salmon, and the other does not. Analyze Results: The lake with the migrating salmon had more toxins than the lake without migrating salmon. Second experiment: scientists tested amount of toxins in salmon as they migrated Analyze Results: Salmon can store toxins in their body during their migration, and the toxins end up in their fat and eggs which other fish eat. Draw conclusions: When salmon migrate, they can transport toxins. a) What are the migrating habits of salmon in Alaska and Sweden?
b) Are increasing levels of air pollution affecting salmon migration?
c) What are the diets of the arctic grayling and the migrating salmon found in the two Alaskan lakes?
d) Are migrating salmon responsible for transporting toxins from sea to freshwater lakes? What questions should you ask yourself while you are bracketing words?
1) What is the point of this paragraph?
2) Does it relate to the question?
- In this case, does it relate to the...