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Non Nursing theorist
Transcript of Non Nursing theorist
Lewins Field Theory:
-Drawn from physics and mathematics (Encyclopedia Britannica website, n.d.).
-The goal of the model is to provide understanding and potential to plan change (McGarry,Cashin & Fowler, 2012)
Non Nursing Theorist
Theories Origin cont'
Homan's Social Exchange Theory
-"The exchange framework is built upon the combination of the central tenets of behaviorism and elementary economics where human behavior is envisaged as a function of its payoff" (Encyclopedia website, n.d.,para.1).
Metaparadigms in Nursing
-Field Theory: The field theory can be applied to nursing as we can help our patient's move towards positive change and accept it.
-Social Exchange Theory- Can be applied to nursing in our interactions with patients and their families.
Field Theory and Application to Nursing
Lewin's Field Theory can be defined, as human behavior is the function of both the person and the environment. Lewin's theory helps nurses to assess a patient's barriers to change, how to help the patient become more accepting to the change, and ultimately completing the change. Nursing is a continual effort to help maintain health in populations and change is usually required to do so. (Bufka, Cluley, Mckinley, & Riley, 2015)
Field Theory and Application to Nursing cont"
-Positives: Support for our patients & resources provided to them. Teaching our patients the importance of change when necessary.
-Drawbacks: Not always having enough time to do everything. Patients unwilling or unready to change and fear of change.
Non Nursing Theories
-Lewin's Field Theory -Homans Social
Social Exchange Theory and Nursing Practice
Social exchange theory proposes that social behavior is the result of an exchange process. (Cherry, 2015) The social exchange theory has been applied to the nursing practice in the result of the Picot Caregiver Rewards Scale. This is a scale measuring the positive consequences of caregiving. Construct validity was demonstrated by support of hypothesized relationships with caregiving demands, palliative coping, depression, and caregiver burden, as well as confirmatory factor analysis. (Picot SJF, 2015) This theory has also been applied to client nurse interaction during public health nursing maternal-child home visits. (Public Health and the Environment, 2004)
For example: A positive intervention would be attempting to improve patient outcomes so that change could occur but the drawback would be a lack of resources available in the community.
Social Exchange Theory:
As nurses, we maintain a social norm to provide treatment in which patients needs are met. Social norms influence the way health care providers and patients interact.
Theory Specific Diagnosis:
Field Theory: Risk for fear related to knowledge deficit as evidence by patient mistrust or suspicion.
Social Exchange Theory: Risk for anxiety related to interpersonal conflicts as evidence by patients expression of anxiety when interacting with health care professionals.
Field Theory Nursing Interventions
-Implementing a planned change, take action and involve the patients!
-Introducing the change and why it's important.
-Make change permanent and reward desired outcomes.
Social Exchange Theory Nursing Interventions
-Establish trust between nurse and patient.
-Encourage open communication.
-Give rewards which is considered a "profit" for positive outcomes and minimize "cost" for negative outcomes.
Components to be researched before applying to clinical practice
Lewins Field Theory
-How policies are developed and implemented
-How to evaluate outcomes of changes in effect.
-Patient's will to comply to change
-Social and economical abilities to implement change.
Components to be researched cont'
Social Exchange Theory
-Client to nurse interaction
-Sociology and Psychology, why humans do what they do.
-Patient's will to comply to change
-Effects of multi-cultural interactions.
Use of current literature and Research in Clinical Practice
-Utilize evidence-based practice at bedside
-Continual education literature
-Literature on new products implemented
-Studies that state statistics supporting clinical practice decisions
Applying Theory to Clinical Practice
-Better understanding of human behavior
-Learning how to develop effective nurse-patient relationships
-Learning how to implement change
-Understanding the effects of the environment
Lewins Field theory and Homan's Social exchange theory have had a significant impact on nursing. The field theory includes the ability to change. Change is implemented at discharge with every patient that we care for. For the nurse to successfully implement change in a patient’s life, it is necessary to provide quality care. Homan’s Social exchange theory is beneficial to nursing practice, because a healthy nurse-patient relationship is a vital component for effective nursing practice. Having a good understanding of theory provides an applicable insight in to nursing clinical practice.
Encyclopedia Britannica website. (n.d.). http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/1074712/field-theory
Encyclopedia website. (n.d.). http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Social_exchange.aspx
Gulanick, Meg, and Judith L. Myers. Nursing care plans: nursing diagnosis and intervention. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby, 2007. Print.
Johnson, Betty M., and Pamela Bayliss Webber. An introduction to theory and reasoning in nursing. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2010. Print.
McGarry, D., Cashin, A., & Fowler, C. (2012). Child and adolescent psychiatric nursing and the ‘plastic man’: Reﬂections on the implementation of change drawing insights from Lewin’s theory of planned change. Contemporary Nurse: A Journal For The Australian Nursing Profession, 41(2), 263-270.
SCARFF, J. (2013). WHY DO PHYSICIANS TREAT THEIR RELATIVES? EXPLORING THE INFLUENCE OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY. Psychological Reports, 113(2), 647-653.
International Encyclopedia of Marriage and Family (2003). Social exchange theory. Retrieved from encyclopedia.com
McEwen, M., & Willis, E.M. (2014). Theoretical basis for nursing. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.
Mitchell, G (2013) Selecting the best theory to implement change. Nursing Management, 20, 32-37. Retrieved from www.nursingmanagement.co.uk
Bufka, K., Cluley, C., Mckinley, W., & Riley, J. (2015). Kurt Lewin. Retrieved from Weebly.com: http://karibufka.weebly.com/uploads/8/6/9/8/8698786/kurt_lewin_theory_presentation.pdf
Cherry, K. (2015). What is Social Exchange Theory. Retrieved from about.com: http://psychology.about.com/od/sindex/g/socialexchange.htm
Picot SJF, Y. J. (2015). Picot Caregiver Rewards Scale. Retrieved from American Psychological Association: http://www.apa.org/pi/about/publications/caregivers/practice-settings/assessment/tools/picot-rewards.aspx
Public Health and the Environment. (2004, November 6-10). Retrieved from American Public Health Association: https://apha.confex.com/apha/132am/techprogram/paper_76402.htm
Relationship between Field Theory and Social Exchange Theory
Lewin: Field theory with emphasis on change
Homan: Social Exchange Theory
(Doctor vs Nurse vs Patient
-Improved patient outcomes
-Better client to nurse relationships
-Planned change leads to better social exchange between healthcare staff and patients.