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HODGES AND TIZARD 1989
Transcript of HODGES AND TIZARD 1989
Hodges and Tizards Aim
to examine the effect of institutional upbringing on later attachments.
investigate whether a lack of emotional care had
effects to emotional and social development
They followed the development of
children who had been in
from only four months old. This is a field experiment and the independent variable of what happened to the children at age 4 occurred naturally.
The care provided was of good quality, but carers were asked to not form attachments with the children which lead to privation occurring.
By age 4, 24 children were adopted, 15 returned to their natural home and the rest stayed in institutions. They were assessed at regular intervals until the age of 16.
They were also compared with a control group, who had spent all their lives in their own families. The group closely matched to the children in the experimental group in terms of sibling number, home location (London) , parental occupation, position in family, age, sex etc.
The children were assessed for social and emotional competence at four, eight and sixteen years old. The assessment included interviewing the children, their parents and teachers with a set of questionnaires.
The children that participated were being compared to when they were younger. This allows progress in attachments and changes in social skills to be observed more accurately.
It has external validity as it is a natural experiment meaning it can be related to the real world.
We can conclude attachments in early years are essential and that Bowlby was correct in emphasizing the importance of the sensitive period. The lack of loving relationships/attachments surrounding privation causes delays in forming attachments with people. However, this delay in forming attachments doesn’t necessarily continue as strongly into adulthood even though there are other implications. It is clear from this experiment that children who had experienced deprivation could form attachments later, but this depended on the adults surrounding them and how these adults cared and nurtured them. The majority of children involved in this study managed to form attachments well even though they were seen to be more attention seeking and showed some difficulty forming relationships with their peers. Overall it shows that early privation has a negative effect on the ability to form relationships even when provided with subsequent care.
By Enya, Natalie and Tom
Deprivation didn't prevent the child from forming strong and lasting attachments to parents once placed into a family.
Whether such attachments developed depended on the family environment being much more common in adopted children than those restored to a biological parent.
Both groups however were more attention seeking towards adults. The children who had spent their early years in institutions showed some difficulties in their social relationships, particularly with their peers, indicating some long term effects of their early institutional experience.
Those returned to their natural families (restored) showed more behavioral problems and the attachments were weaker.
The restored (test group) children were less likely to have formed attachments with their mothers but the adopted children were as closely attached to their parents as the control group of normal children.
In a natural experiment, there are too many variables which couldn't be controlled unlike in a lab experiment. For example there may have been an emotional trauma within the home due to a family members death or parents getting divorced which could have had impact on the findings.
You can’t ensure the same emotional stability is placed in the control group, restored and the institutionalised children’s home.
Hodges and Tizard used interviews and questionnaires. Both of these can produce answers affected by social desirability (people may say something to appear in a good light). This could lead to the responses being inaccurate.