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Zachary McAllister

on 15 August 2014

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Transcript of Macromolecules

Carbohydrates are molecules composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen and they include sugar and starches.

Carbohydrates can be broken down to provide a source of usable chemical energy for cells. Carbohydrates are also a major part of plant cell structure.
The most basic carbs are simple sugars, or monosaccharides. Simple sugars usually have 5-6 carbon atoms. Simple sugars can be bonded to make larger carbohydrates. For example, two sugars bonded together make the disaccharide we know as table sugar. Many monomers together will form a polysaccharide.
Lipids are nonpolar molecules that include fats, oils, and cholesterol. Like carbohydrates, most lipids contain chains of carbon atoms bonded to oxygen and hydrogen atoms that are attached to a glycerol molecule.

Some lipids are broken down as a source of usable energy for cells. Other lipids are part of a cell's structure.
Fats and oils are 2 familiar types of lipids and store lots of chemical energy in organisms. Animals fats are found in meats and butter, while oils are plant fats - olive oil and peanut oil are 2 examples.

Fats and oils are structurally similar. They both consist of a molecule called glycerol bonded to molecules called fatty acids. Fatty acids are chains of carbon atoms bonded to hydrogen atoms.
Types of Lipids
Triglycerides are lipids that contain 3 fatty acids bonded to glycerol. They are often called saturated fats because they have the maximum number of hydrogen atoms possible. Most animal fats are saturated fats.
Unsaturated Fats
Fatty acids in oils have fewer hydrogen atoms because there is at least one double bond between carbon atoms. These lipids are called unsaturated because the fatty acids are not saturated with hydrogen atoms.
Types of Lipids
All cell membranes are made mostly of another type of lipid, call a phospholipid. A phospholipid consists of glycerol, 2 fatty acids, and a phosphate group that is part of the polar "head" of the molecule.
Cholesterol is a lipid that has a ring structure. Cholesterol possesses a stigma, but is necessary for many bodily functions. For example, cholesterol is part of cell membranes and is also used to create steroids that serve many functions.
Comparing Structures
Saturated vs Unsaturated
Phospholipid vs Triglyceride
Amino acids are molecules that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur.

Each amino acid monomer has a carbon atom that is bonded to 4 parts. 3 of these parts are the same in every amino acid: a hydrogen atom, an amino group (NH ), and a carboxyl group (COOH). Amino acids only differ in their side group, or the R-group
Proteins are the most varied of the carbon-based molecules in organisms. In movement, eyesight, or digestion, proteins are at work.

Proteins are polymers made of monomers called amino acids. Organisms use 20 different amino acids to build proteins. Your body can make 12 of them. The others come from foods you eat, such as meat, beans, and nuts.
Amino acids form covalent bonds, called peptide bonds, with each other. The bonds form between the amino group of one amino acid and the carboxyl group of another.

Through peptide bonds, amino acids are linked into chains called polypeptides. A protein is one or more polypeptides.
Nucleic Acids
When someone wants to build something, they sometimes use blueprints or plans that provide instruction on how to build the project correctly.

Detailed instructions to build proteins are stored in extremely long carbon-based molecules called nucleic acids. Nucleic acids are polymers that are made up of monomers called nucleotides. A nucleotide is composed of a sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogen-containing molecule called a base. There are 2 general types of nucleic acids: DNA and RNA
Nucleic Acids
Nucleic acids are different from the other types of carbon-based molecules. Carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins have many different structures and functions, whereas nucleic acids only have one function.

The primary function of nucleic acids is the creation of proteins. DNA stores the info for putting together amino acids to make proteins, and RNA helps to build proteins.
Comparing Structures
Has a phosphate group & a nitrogenous base
Consists of glycerol attached to fatty acids
Has a carbon atom attached to a hydrogen atom, an amino group, and a carboxyl group
Composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms - include sugars and starches
Comparing Functions
Nucleic Acids
Long-term energy storage, insulation, cell membranes, hormones
Short-term energy (sugars), Intermediate-energy (starches), cell wall structure (plant cells)
Control what goes in and out of a cell, help identify the type of cell, help hold cells together, receive and transport signals, build tissues
Responsible for the creation of proteins
Carbon-based Molecules
Carbon is often called the building block of life because carbon atoms are the basis of most molecules that make up living things. Carbon has unique bonding properties due to its atoms each possessing 4 unpaired electrons in its outer energy level. This means they can form up to 4 covalent bonds with 4 other atoms.
Carbon-based Molecules
In many carbon-based molecules, small molecules are subunits of an entire molecule, like links in a chain. Each subunit in the complete molecule is called a monomer. When monomers are linked, they form molecules called polymers. The monomers that make up a polymer may be all the same or varied.
Nutrition Label
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