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The Inclusive Classroom: How to Support Students with Hearing Impairment
Transcript of The Inclusive Classroom: How to Support Students with Hearing Impairment
with Hearing Impairment The Inclusive Classroom: What is Hearing Impairment? Learning Profiles and Challenges Language Development and Challenges Social/Emotional Development and Challenges Behaviour Who makes the diagnoses? Criteria for Ministry Designation Assessment Tools and Procedures Process of Diagnosis and Designation Strategy:
Information Rings Assessment Strategies and Adaptations Instruction Resources Books Schwartz Green, Linda and Diane Casale-Giannola. 40 Active Learning Strategies for the Inclusive Classroom, Grades K-5. 2011. Corwin: A SAGE Company. Pages 74-76. Visual Strategies and
Write all homework assignments, class instructions and procedural changes on the board.
Arrange desks in a circular pattern if possible so hearing impaired students can see other students.
Provide students with an outline of the daily lesson and printed copies of the notes, allowing them to focus on discussions and questions while you are teaching.
Use posters, charts, flash cards, pictures, manipulatives, graphic organizers, artifacts or any visual items to illustrate concepts.
Use captioned videos in class.
If a student is proficient on the computer, look into providing them with a laptop for notes and communication during class.
Follow all established guidelines within the student’s IEP, regarding classroom adaptations and aids for hearing impaired students.
Consider using an interpreter if the student knows American Sign Language and feels comfortable using it during class. Physical Accomodations:
Classroom Environment Some students with hearing loss may require the use of sound amplification equipment. Make sure students are seated near the equipment and can hear the amplified voices. If the teacher usually uses a microphone, it should be passed around during group discussions.
When possible, turn off equipment that creates background noises, such as fans, air conditioning/heating systems and projectors, when not in use.
Area rugs, heavy curtains and tennis balls on chair bottoms can also eliminate a great deal of extraneous noise. Communication
Considerations •Look directly at the student and face him or her when communicating or teaching.
•Say the student’s name or signal their attention in some way before speaking.
•Assign the student a desk near the front of the classroom, or where you plan to deliver most of your lectures.
•Speak naturally and clearly. Remember speaking louder won't help.
•Do not exaggerate your lip movements, but slowing down a little may help some students.
•Use facial expressions, gestures and body language to help convey your message, but don't overdo it.
•Some communication may be difficult for the hard of hearing student to understand. Explicitly teach idioms and explain jokes and sarcasm.
•Young hearing impaired children often lag in the development of social graces. Consider teaching specific social skills such as joining in to games or conversation, maintaining conversations, and staying on topic. Monitor student progress in daily work and assignments, and ask the student for feedback regarding their understanding or areas where they might be confused.
Maintain close contact with parents and other teachers and share ideas and techniques that have been successful.
If necessary, establish a system with the parents to monitor student work, participation and progress, such as a daily agenda.
Have clear defined goals:
SMART goal philosophy: •Specific
•Realistic and Relevant
•Time Limited Online Rose, Sharilyn. How to Teach Hearing Impaired Students: Strategies for Success. 2011. Retrieved from http://www.brighthubeducation.com/special-ed-hearing-impairments/67528-tips-and-strategies-for-teaching-hearing-impaired-students/
Rose, Sharilyn. Data Collection for IEPs: Measuring Progression Toward a Goal. 2012. Retrieved from http://www.brighthubeducation.com/special-ed-law/117103-is-a-student-meeting-an-iep-goal-data-collection-forms-can-help/
B.C Special Education Services: A Manual of Policies, Procedures and Guidelines. http://www.bced.gov.bc.ca/specialed/ppandg.htm
'Guidelines for the Audiological Assessment of Children from Birth to 5 Years of Age', http://www.asha.org/policy/GL2004-00002.htm
'Audiological Assessment Techniques', http://www.sickkids.ca/communicationdisorders/What-we-do/Audiology/Assessment-Techniques/index.html
The Hearing Foundation of Canada: http://www.thfc.ca/cms/en/KeyStatistics/KeyStatistics.aspx?menuid=87
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hearing_loss HEARING IMPAIRMENT
occurs when the ability to
understand speech is affected
the clarity of sound How many people in Canada have
a hearing impairment? Hearing Impairment is one of the most prevalent and fastest growing chronic conditions in Canada.
10% of the Canadian Population has a hearing impairment of some degree
Stats Canada - 15% of children may suffer hearing impairments of some degree caused by ear infections occurring within the first two years of life.
Majority of children with hearing impairments, have only slight hearing loss, which is typically only noted under conditions with
poor acoustics What causes hearing impairment? Age
progresses with age
cause of half the cases of hearing loss
can be inherited
ex: measles, mumps, meningitis
ex: multiple sclerosis, stroke
Chemicals By type, severity, and age of onset
(before or after language acquirement) Classification Conductive – problem conducting sound waves
Sensorineural – problems with the inner ear
- may involve the cochlea or the auditory nerve
Mixed – combination of above Three types Hearing aids
artificially stimulate the
cochlear nerve Management Turns or cocks head
Focuses intently on speakers face in order to read lips
Echopraxia - closely watching peers to emulate behaviour and body language.
May appear to be inattentive or absent minded
Responds to noises rather than words Learning Underdeveloped speech abilities which may include:
Cutting off the ends of words
Monotone quality in voice
Difficulty articulating words
Variations in pitch Learning
Hearing impaired students may have difficulties with interpersonal skills
Hearing impaired students work better in smaller groups Motor Challenges
Hearing impaired children might seem dizzy/disoriented because the nerves in the ears also control balance Hearing impaired students may experience social isolation from peers if sign language is their primary means of communication and/or if they require an interpreter Feelings/Behaviours Preoccupied with things, not people
Low self-esteem which may lead to depression
Embarrassment of hearing aids and fear of rejection of peers
May become frustrated and act out if needs are not being met May have some degree of language delay
May have difficulty with oral expression
May struggle with reading and writing due
to inability to make connections between
consonant sounds and words on a page
May use gestures instead of words
May be reluctant to participate orally
May struggle with grammar Learning A student who is deaf or hard of hearing has an audiological assessment performed by an audiologist who may affirm a diagnosis of:
bilateral hearing loss
unilateral hearing loss
or a need for cochlear implant (due to sensorineural hearing impairment)
Many students have already received a medical diagnosis prior to entering the school system. Tests are administered in a sound-treated booth. Methods vary depending on child’s age or developmental ability, but generally fall into one of two categories:
1) Objective Tests- don’t require active cooperation or behavioural response
2) Subjective Tests- there are 4 different types of subjective tests. Which type of test used depends on child’s age and conditioning to sound. The most common subjective test for school-aged children is Conventional Audiometry. Students must have a medically diagnosed hearing loss that results in a substantial educational difficulty. Usually after a student is diagnosed with hearing loss in B.C, they are then required to complete an assessment to determine strengths/weaknesses in the areas of language development and communication skills (this is administered by a teacher of the deaf/hard of hearing).
For students with unilateral hearing loss, there must be significant hearing loss in the affected ear, and an annual assessment of impact must be documented. Journal Articles "Neonatal Screening for Hearing Impairment", Arch Dis Child, 2000; 83. 377-383 Doorn, Ron; "Teaching Hearing Impaired Children". Nov/Dec ; Teach / Le Prof p.31-36 Although this strategy is intended for auditory processing issues we believe that students with hearing impairments can likewise benefit from this strategy because:
visual - clear categories
kinaesthetic - creating/moving information with their hands
reviewing terms and definitions/notes individually or as a group Presented by: Laura DeCiantis, Gillian Epp, Diana Olson, and Emily Recalma