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ENG 111 Chapters 5-9
Transcript of ENG 111 Chapters 5-9
Academic Writing is a way of adding your voice to an ongoing larger conversation.
Identify your PURPOSE:
Writers usually focus on ONE purpose for writing.
What is the primary purpose of your writing task?
To demonstrate knowledge/ability?
What are your goals?
What are your audience's expectations?
Do their expectations affect the way you define your purpose?
What do you want your audience to do, think, or feel? How will they use what you tell them?
Thinking About Purpose:
What does this writing task call on you to do?
Do you need o show that you have mastered certain content or skills?
Do you have an assignment that specifies a particular STRATEGY (p333) or GENRE (p71) - to compare two things, perhaps, or to argue a position?
What are the best ways to achieve your purpose?
What kind of STANCE (pp64-67) should you take? Should you write in a particular genre?
Do you have a choice of MEDIUM (p591), and does your text require any special format or DESIGN (p591) elements?
Audiences are defined as known, multiple, and unknown.
Known: people who you are familiar with, and those whose needs and expectations you do know.
Business memos and reports may be written for a supervisor, but he or she may pass them to others. These are called multiple audiences.
Unknown audiences can be the most difficult to address since you can't be sure what they know, what they need to know, or how they'll react.
Whom do you want to reach?
What is your audience's background?
fought in a war?
have young children?
What are their interests?
Is there any demographic info that you should keep in mind?
What political circumstances may affect their reading? What attitudes (opinions, special interests, biases) may affect the way they read?
middle of the road
What do they already know or believe about your topic?
What's your relationship with your audience, and how should it affect your language and tone?
What do they need and expect from you?
What GENRE (p71) is most appropriate?
What kind of responses do you want?
To believe you?
To do something?
To accept your info as valid?
To understand why something matters to you?
How can you best appeal to your audience?
Is there a particular MEDIUM (p591) that will work best?
Are there any DESIGN (591) requirements?
Genre determines how we read and how we interpret what we read.
Genres help us write by establishing features for conveying certain kinds of content.
They give readers clues about what sort of info they are likely to find.
Identify your genre
Does your writing situation call for a certain GENRE (p71)?
If not, see Chapter 24 (Choosing a Genre) to help.
What is your Genre, and how does it affect what content you should include?
researched source material?
your own opinions?
Does your Genre call for any specific strategies (p329)?
Does it require a certain organization?
Some genres leave room for a choice
Does your Genre affect your tone?
Should your words sound serious and scholarly?
Brisk and to the point?
Objective or Opinionated?
Do you have a choice of MEDIUM (591)?
Some call for print, others for electronic medium.
Some teachers want papers printed on paper, some require electronic submission.
Does it have any DESIGN requirements?
Some call for paragraphs, some require lists.
Different genres call for different design elements
What is your attitude toward your topic?
Your stance may be affected by your relationship to your audience.
How do you want them to see you?
Stance is affected by Genre: lab reports are expected to be objective. Just the facts.
You communicate (or downplay) your stance through your tone - through the words you use and other ways your text expresses an attitude toward your subject and audience
Just as you likely alter what you say depending on whether you are talking with your boss, your instructor, your parent, or your good friend, so you need to make similar adjustments as a writer
What is your stance, and how does it relate to your purpose for writing?
You will need to adjust your stance to meet the demands of your purpose.
How should your stance be reflected in your tone?
Do you want to be seen as reasonable?
Be sure that your language reflect your tone.
How is your stance likely to be received by your audience?
Your tone and attitude will affect how they react to what you say.
Should you openly reveal your stance?
Do you want to announce your own perspective on the topic?
Will doing so help you reach your audience, or would it be better not to say where you are coming from?
Each medium has unique characteristics that influence both what and how we communicate
"I haven't told you this before, but I love you."
We choose among various media depending on our purpose and audience.
Some info is easier to read and explain if written in a chart or graph versus written in paragraph form.
Identify your media and design needs.
Does your writing situation call for a certain medium and design?
A printed essay?
An oral report with visual aids?
Thinking about Media
What medium are you using?
How does it affect the way that you will create your text?
How does your medium affect your organization and strategies (p329)?
Long paragraphs work on paper, but how about on the Web?
How does the medium affect your language?
More formal voice in print than in spoken media.
How does your medium affect what elements besides words you use?
Photos? Graphics? Audio/video files? Links?
Thinking about Design
What's the appropriate look for your Rhetorical Situation (p53)?
Should it look serious? Whimsical? Personal?
What elements need to be designed?
Boldfaced? Highlighted text? Navigation buttons needed?
What Font is appropriate?
should you include any visuals?
Should you include Headings?
Writing in Academic Contexts
Key Features of Academic Writing
Evidence that you have carefully considered the subject
cite authoritative sources
point out connections between ideas
A clear, appropriately qualified Thesis.
state your main point clearly
you may need to "qualify" your thesis to acknowledge that the subject is complicated
A response to what others have said
you will probably not be the first to write about it
present your ideas as a response to what others have said
Good reasons supported by evidence
Sometimes comes from your own experience, but more often from published research and scholarship, research that you do yourself, or first hand accounts by others
Academic writing is generally expected to be more detached and objective and less personal and emotional
Acknowledgment of multiple perspectives
More than just two sides
Represent the range of perspectives fairly
Carefully documented sources
when you use the words or ideas of others, those sources must be documented both in the text and in a works cited list at the end
A Confident, authoritative stance
your tone should convey confidence and establish your authority to write about your subject
An indication of why your topic matters
why is your topic worth exploring?
why is your writing is worth reading
Careful attention to correctness
Always write in complete sentences
Use appropriate capitalization and punctuation
Check your spelling
Thinking about an Academic Rhetorical Situation
What Genre does the assignment require?
What do you see as your instructor's purpose for this assignment?
What is YOUR purpose, as the writer (apart from your instructor's expectations).
Who is your audience?
How can you convey a confident, authoritative stance?
What MEDIA are available, permitted, and appropriate?
Are any required?
What design issues need to be considered?