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science

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jared hart

on 20 March 2015

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Transcript of science

Phylum Mollusca
Meaning, "soft bodied"
Examples: Snails, Slugs, and Squid
Have soft, unsegmented
Contains a mantle that secrets an exoskeleton or shell
Bilateral symmetry
3 germ layers
Filter feeder, cephalopod; hunts prey, uses tentacles, puts in mouth
# of 2 gut openings, mouth and anus
Organ called the Nephridium gets rid of waste
Movement: most have a singular muscular foot used for moving
Cephalopods: uses jet of water + tentacles
Sexual reproduction, Internal fertilization
Bivalves: brain and receptors
Cephalization occurs in mollusca
most animals are marine
some are found in coastal areas
Phylum Porifera
Common name is "pore bearer"
examples: bath sponge, finger sponge, grantia
Are either radially symmetrical or asymmetrical
Contains a system of spores known as ostia
Food items are taken into individual cells by phagocytosis
Contains 1 gut opening
They are sessile, which means attached to something or fixed in one place
Being sessile allows Porifera to spend less energy on movement, and focus on growth and reproduction
Asexual- budding
Sexual- hermaphroditic, external fertilization
They have no nervous system
Known to live in coral reefs, deep sea, and freshwater bodies
Phylum cnidaria
means "sea nettle"
example: jellyfish, coral, sea anemones
Radial symmetry
Have basic body forms such as medusa(jelly fish), and polyp (anemone)
Contain a gastrovascular cavity , which serves as mouth and anus, so 1 gut opening
Medusa use jet propulsion for movement
polyp don't move and attach there self to something
adaptation consists of tentacles with cnidocytes
sexual and asexual
development is neither protostome or deuterostome
simple nervous system, contains a nerve net, and no brain, no cephalization
Can be found in Great barrier reef, Continental shelves, and Artic oceans
Phylum Annelida
means, "segmented worm"
examples: earthworms, leech, nereis
contains a linear series of cylindrical segments or metameres
bilaterally symmetrical
pull food through mouth by the action of the muscular pharynx
fluid-filled cavity between outer body and the gut, is called the coelem
nephridia in ea segment put liquid waste out
contains a number of 2 gut openings
Annelids are motile
depend on two major sets of muscles for movement,longitudinal muscles and a coil of muscles on the inside
most dont have appendages except the sand worm
reproduce sexually, hermaphroditic
reproduce internally
contains a brain, a ventral nerve cord, ganglia in each segment
Phylum platyhelminthes
Means "flatworm"
example: flatworms, planeria
bilateral symmetry
3 layers of tissues w/ organs + organelles
Contains no internal cavity
Consist of a blind gut
Movement depends on longitudinal, circular, and oblique layers of muscle
no appendages
Shape of flatworm allows the species to survive without a circulation system
They are sexual hermaphrodites
Internal an external fertilization
Contains cephalization, Primitive brain + longitudinal, transverse nerve cords; eye spots, auricles
habitat: pond bottom
Phylum Nematoda
means "thread form"
examples: roundworms, pinworms, hookworms
Bilateral symmetry
3 germ layers
obtain food by diffusion and smaller vessels
Has 2 openings, Mouth and anus
body cavity is pseudocel
Some are free living and some are parasitic
Sexual reproduction, and is internal
Simple nervous system consists of a ring of nervous tissue around the pharynyx
Found in every habitat
SCIENCE PROJECT
BY: Jared Hart

Phylum Arthropoda
Means, "jointed foot"
Examples: crabs, spiders, and scorpians
Bilateral symmetry
Paired appendages are jointed
their segmented bodies are arranged into regions, called tagmata
They feed on anything
Waste leave through the anus
Movement is achieved by muscles attached inside the skeleton, which coordinates with their nervous system
They have jointed appendages
tough exsoskeleton reduces water loss
Males and females often show pronounced sexual dimorphism
Internal fertilization
contains a well-developed nervous system, containing a pair of ganglia and two long nerves down the esophagus, connecting the brain to a nerve cord
Cephalization occurs
Habitats: marine, freshwater, and a terrestrial ecosystem
Phylum Echinodermata
5 rayed symmetry/sometimes bilateral
Possesses through guts with anus
body shape highly variable/ no head
nervous system
poorly open circulatory system
sexual reproduction
feeds on fine particles in water
live in all marie enviorments
examples: starfish and allies
Phylum Chordata
Class Chondrichthyes
Means, "cartilage fish"
examples: sharks and rays
they have cartilage, not bone
Bilateral symmetry
Have a lateral line system
They contain no ribs
they are carnivores and they use their sharp teeth to hunt
number of 2 gut openings
digestive system that consists of stomach, intestines, and an anus
have paired fins and flexible bodies making movement in water easy
Since they have no bones their red blood cells are made in leydig's organ
sexual reproduction
internal fertilization
consists of a small brain, spinal column, and a network of nerves
Class Osteichthyes
means, "bony fish"
examples: Marlins, Bass, Catfish, and Anglefish
2 chambered heart
paired fins with rays of cartilage of bone
Bilateral symmetry
Have an endoskeleton
as a group, bony fishes can eat all sizes of plants and animals to obtain energy
# of 2 gut openings
pancreas release enzymes into intestines for digestion
move by using fins and body walls
sexual reproduction
external development
has brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, spinal nerves, and sensory organs
Live in all types of freshwater and saltwater
Class amphibia
means, "double-life"
examples: frogs, salamanders
lay eggs in water
living skin- must be moist to breathe
bilateral symmetry
have inner skeletons with backbone
feed on small invertebrates to obtain energy
fliter waste from their blood to their kidneys and excrete either ammonia or urea as a waste product
Some walk, some jump, some swim
sexual reproduction
external fertilization
has a central brain, a spinal cord, and nerves through the body
live in suitable aquatic and terrestrial habitats
Class Reptilia
means, "cold-blooded vertebrate"
examples: turtles, snakes, crocodilians
amniotic egg
contains scales
# of 2 gut openings mouth and cloaca
contains mouth, esophagus, stomach, intestine, and ends in cloaca
S-shaped movement by exerting force against surface irregularities such as rocks or plants
or walk using legs
sexual reproduction
internal fertilization, external development
basic part of the amphibian brain, but the reptile cerebrum and cerebellum are slightly larger
occupy aquatic and terrestrial habitats
Class Aves
meaning, "birds"
examples: penguin, robin, jays
feathers, warm-blooded, hollow bones
bilateral symmetry
consume any type of food to obtain energy
# of 2 gut openings
use wings for flying or soaring through air
sexual reproduction
internal fertilization
occur in heathland, woodland, forest, rainforest, wetland, coastal
Class Mammalia
means, "mammal"
examples: elephant, humans,mouse
hair, mammary glands, warm blooded
bilateral symmetry
soft tissue
eat anything, fat stores energy
# of 2 gut openings, mouth and anus
legs allow mammals to have movement
sexual reproduction
internal fertilization
consists of 2 main nervous systems, central nervous system and peripheral nervous system
CNS contains brain, PNS contains nerves
Habitat, everywhere
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