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Unit 6- Conflict 1: World War I
Transcript of Unit 6- Conflict 1: World War I
Early Tensions Lead to CONFLICT
A general peace in Europe had existed since 1815 because of:
The Congress of Vienna of 1815- it was fair and prevented power struggles in Europe
JAPAN SHOWS ITS STRENGTH!
The Sino-Japanese War! (1894-1895)
CHINA vs. JAPAN
China had control over Korea...Japan wanted Korea to be independent, so they could have claim it's resources and location.
Japan beat China, took control of Korea, and IMPERIALISM for Japan began!!
The Russo- Japanese War!! (1904-1905)
RUSSIA vs. JAPAN
Russia wanted control of Manchuria
and KOREA for... a
WARM WATER PORT
Japan beat Russia!!
The BALKAN WARS
A series of conflicts between multiple
nations for land in the Balkans
TENSIONS IN EUROPE = ALLIANCE BUILDING!!
Triple Alliance Triple Entente
How did it
. Germany, Italy, G. Britain, France,
. Austria-Hungary Russia*
. Germany & AH= Russia& France (1889), to
. DUAL alliance (1879), guard against Germany.
. to guard against France. Brit joins in 1907**
. Italy joins in 1881
** Germany also signed a Treaty with Russia *Germany lapsed Treaty with Russia
* * Britain was threatened when Germany
created a stroner navy
What did Otto von bismarck have to do with the whole "Alliance System" thing?
He thought France needed to be kept in check because of
the French Rev fiasco...
Tensions Lead to the MAIN causes of WWI!
The assasination of
FRANZ FERDINAND!! (JUNE 28, 1914)
Who was Franz Ferdinand?
The Archduke to the Austria- Hungarian Throne
Who assassinated him?
A Serbian from the "Black Hand"- a radical underground terrorist group
- Were in an alliance - Ethnic connections: high populations
- Had similar cultures of slavs lived in both Russia & Serbia
The "BLANK CHECK"
Germany's Kaiser Wilhelm II gave AH its support if AH wanted to declare WAR on Serbia...
- AH sends a list of Ultimatums to Serbia,
called the "JULY ULTIMATUM"...
Accepts all of the
conditions but ONE
**AH declares WAR anyway!!! Why do you think?
They had Germany to back them up, and they
wanted control of Serbia
the assassination of archduke franz ferdinand was
the IMMEDIATE cause of the Great War!
date that AH declared War:
. July 28, 1914
** Thus, when the Great War began...
Events of the GREAT WAR
By_______________________ Many 'Great Powers had joined
Austria's declaration of War
The CENTRAL POWERS The ALLIED POWERS
Germany, Austria- Great Britain, France,
GERMANY AND WWI
- Major Problem-
. Germany had to fight
on TWO fronts- Western & Eastern
The Schlieffen Plan:
. Germany's strategy to defeat France on the Western front in 6 weeks, then send all troops to the Eastern front to fight Russia...
What were trenches?
Fortified fighting lines of opposing forces
"No Man's Land"
- the area of land
between two opposing forces
-Men's feet would become infected
from muddy trenches, causing amputation
what do you think about using
trenches as a military strategy??
why was world war i so deadly??
1. New Technologies:
a. Machine guns/ artillery
b. Poisonous gas
c. Land & Sea tech- (U-boats/submarines,
airplanes, tanks, grenades)
2. MANY countries got involved:
a. Joined the Allies-
b. Joined the Central Powers-
ALOT! Major ones= Japan, US
. Ottoman Empire, Bulgaria
** More soldiers=More casualties!!
on the Western Front= high death rate
problems within russia:
1. Was not as Industrialized as the rest
2. Was cut off from other Allies
Brit and France unsuccessfully tried to ship supplies to Russia through OE
The "Gallipoli Campaign"-
The RUSSIAN REVOLUTION! (1917)
. - Revolt from
the peasant/proletariat class who forced the CZAR from power!
. Radical revolutionary
group led by V.I. Lenin, who took
power in 1917
The Treaty of brest-litovsk:
. March 3, 1918: Signed between Germany
& Russia; Russia had to give territory to Germany for leaving the War early
the us enters the war!!!
The US's initial response to the War-
Non-Involvement ---> NEUTRALITY!!
"Unrestricted Submarine Warfare"=
. German policy of
sinking ANY ship in English waters.
The Sinking of the LUSITANIA:
. May 7, 1915: British passenger ship- sunk by German subs, and 150 Americans were killed
The ZIMMERMAN TELEGRAM:
. Germany to Mexico-
"Help us fight, and we will give you back all the territory you lost to the US!"
now us president woodrow wilson is maaaad!
April 6, 1917:
They joined the:
. US declares war on Germany!
. ALLIED POWERS
Why was US involvement soooo important?
They had fresh troops who were
Russia had to withdraw, which hurt
the Allied Powers
by 1918, the allies
had begun to dominate
the War... pushing Germany back behind
How did propoganda influence
involvement in wwi??
After 4 years of intense fighting (1914-1918)...
11th HOUR, of the 11th MONTH, of the 11th DAY
November 11, 1918-
an ARMISTACE was signed
between the Allied and Central Powers...
The Paris Peace Conference
To fix a very devestated & War-torn Europe
The "BIG FOUR"
United States Woodrow Wilson
France Georges Clemenceau
Great Britain David Lloyd Georges
Italy Vittorio Orlando
Woodrow Wilson and his "Fourteen Points":
Balance of power in Europe
an International peace organization of various countries
ALL countries should reduce the size of their military
League of Nations-
Treaty of Versailles
Created the terms of punishment & loss for Germany and its allies
Terms of the Versailles Treaty:
1. "war guilt clause"
. - Germany MUST accept
100% responsibility for the War.
payment for damages that were caused
during the war (Germany had to pay over 3 trillion!!)
Loss of Territory
Results of the treaty of Versailles
1. German Inflation:
the value of German $$
GREATLY decreased. (ex- 1 lb of bread:
1918- $1.00; 1923- $3,000,000,000.00)
Lack of stability leads to
3. The US-
Felt bad for Germany; sent
them loans & refused to join the League
**germany was so crippled by the Treay of Versailles that
most historians believe it directly led to-
The rise of the Nazi's and WORLD WAR II!
An agreement to stop fighting
The powder keg!!
4. Using War to cover up GENOCIDE:
THE ARMENIAN GENOCIDE
WHEN AND WHERE?
1915, within the Ottoman Empire
Muslim Turks (the "Young Turks")
Being Christian amongst Muslim Turks threatened the Ottoman Gov. Armenians were sent on death marches, drowned, thrown off cliffs, and crucified- and covered up by WWI. Result: of the 2 million Armenians in the OE, 1.5 million were killed.