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Occupational Therapy Timeline
Transcript of Occupational Therapy Timeline
End Of WWI:
Many returning soldiers required the services of occupational therapists or “reconstruction aides” in order to return to civilian life. As a result, the military increased the number of reconstruction facilities and employed several therapists. This grew the workforce of occupational therapists and because the efforts of the therapists proved effective, it legitimized the need for occupational therapy.
Polio became so widespread that it was considered an epidemic. As a result, specialized treatment centers were created to help with the treatment and effects of the disease. These centers employed occupational therapists to assist the patients with recovery. Additionally, President Roosevelt’s paralyzation from the disease helped increase public awareness for treatment.
Considered the “Mother of Occupational Therapy"
Advocate towards the medical aspect of
the profession of OT to the government
Eleanor Clarke Slagle
Considered the “Father of Occupational Therapy”
First treasurer of the AOTA
Eventually became second president of the AOTA
Dr. William R. Dunton
Herbert James Hall & Horatio M. Pollack
Horatio calls for collaboration between physicians and OT’s to better help the patient and environment of the hospital
Horatio and Herbert began a record keeping
system within the profession to have examples of the effectiveness of OT
Development of Occupation
As A Therapeutic Strategy
In order to be therapeutic, it is thought that occupations should be "creative and challenging opportunities…” (Kielhofner, 2009, pg24).
Games and music are considered occupations
“Real-life” tasks become part of therapy. Clients participate in activities such as laundry, building and grounds maintenance, kitchen work, and more.
The establishment of a standard committee devoted to educational issues was organized (No more war emergency schools, only accredited colleges or universities).
The name of the American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA) was established
Susan Cox Johnson Helped create and became chair of the Committee on Education to help OT become more respected as a recognized career. She advocated for certification and good salaries.
Tuberculosis was a concern during this
time as poverty and immigration are
correlated with higher rates of contraction
The Great Depression
Treatment centers were developed to counter the rising rates of the disease and many occupational therapists were employed to assist in treatment and recovery
OT's introduce outdoor activities such as
gardening and foresting to therapy
Meyer and Dunton consider daily habits to be occupations
Eleanor Clarke Slagle gains approval from the board of the American Occupational Therapy Association to rent a room from the National Health Counsel to serve as headquarters for the association
“The Archives of Occupational Therapy” by Dunton was first published
Meyer emphasizes that occupations should be meaningful (No longer arts and crafts)
Eight schools of Occupational Therapy were established and recognized throughout the east coast and midwest
The American Occupational Therapy Association put quality before quantity by adopting minimum standards for training of practitioners
The minimum standards for occupational therapy were established. AOTA standardizes Occupational Therapy as post-graduate program
Accreditation of educational programs became a stated function of the American Occupational Therapy Association, and basic educational standards were developed
The American Occupational Therapy Association
followed the example of The American Nursing Association by establishing a national registry that defined a hierarchy of practitioners
Separation between Nursing and OT became
more pronounced with the work
of Susan Cox Johnson (AOTA chair)
Symbols of Occupational
Occupational therapy progressively separated from nursing and teaching to become uniquely independent
Graduating from an appopriate school became the prerequisite to be able to practice
The Journal "Modern Hospital" added a regular
column on Occupational Therapy
Everett S. Elwood, a physician, pushes for national examination for licensing in occupational therapy, which is met with resistance from current therapists.
He also pushes for medical school and OT-school contact in the hospital
The education and experience required to graduate increased
Eleanor Clarke Slagle began working
with American Medical Association to
develop guidelines for accreditation of
occupational therapy programs
Dunton, Slagle, and Susan Tracy, another Association founder, played a vital role in the creation and passage of the Federal Industrial Rehabilitation Act
Dunton stressed the important of research in occupational therapy
Slagle encourages universities to create occupational therapy courses
Minimum standards for course training registration enacted
The “Syllabus for Training of Nurses in Occupational Therapy” was
published by Eleanor Clarke Slagle
AOTA approached the Council on Medical Education of the American Medical Association (AMA) to request cooperation in the development and improvement of educational programs for occupational therapists
The “Essentials of an Acceptable School of Occupational Therapy” were adopted by the AMA House of Delegates. This action represented the first cooperative accreditation activity by the AMA
The American Occupational Therapy Association. (2013). History of AOTA Accreditation. Retrieved from http://www.aota.org/en/Education-Careers/Accreditation/Overview/History.aspx
Christiansen, C., & Haertl, K. (2014) A contextual history of occupational therapy. In B.A.B.
Schell, G. Gillen, & M.E. Scaffa (Eds). Willard & Spackman’s occupational therapy (12th
ed., p. 20-34). Philadelphia: Lippincott & Wilkins.
Coleman , W. (1992). Structuring Education: Development of the first educational standards in occupational therapy, 1917-1930. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 49(7), 655-659. doi: 10.50141/ajot.46.7.653
Custard, C.,(1998). Tracing research methodology in occupational therapy. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 52(8), 677-680. doi: 10.5014/ajot.52.8.676
Bing, R. K. (1961). William Rush Dunton, Jr.: American psychiatrist- A study in self (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). College Park, MD: University of Maryland.
Friedland, J. (2011). Restoring the spirit: The beginnings of occupational therapy in Canada,
1890-1930. Montreal, Canada: McGill-Queens University Press.
Quiroga, V. (1995). Occupational Therapy: The First 30 years 1900 to 1930. Bethesda
Maryland: The American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.
A prominent physician who had the opinion that occupational and physical therapy should be combined into a dual profession
Frank H. Krusen