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Cultural Diffusion In Music.

Discovering how cultural diffusion brought forth the development of rock 'n' roll, hip-hop and the unique styles of many popular composers.

Elizabeth Jenkinson

on 4 March 2018

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Transcript of Cultural Diffusion In Music.

It was against the law to teach slaves to read or write.

Songs were a part of the slaves’ daily lives, a survival tactic, a means of coded communication and enabled the plantation overseer to know where they were and that they were working.The spirituals provided a means of verbal, coded communication understood only by those in the Underground Railroad.
In the early 1900s entertainment was one of the few professions open to women however a woman on stage was considered to be little more than a prostitute. As such most aspiring singers performed in private with their piano and sheet music. Those who played for pay had to take the consequences...
Women led a rough, rollicking existence in turn-of-the-century minstrelsy and vaudeville, with very few artists breaking through....
Minister's daughter, Matilda Sissieretta Joyner Jones studied music in the late 1880's at the New England Conservatory of Music. She came to the attention of the Italian opera singer Adelina Patti's manager who sent her out to tour the Caribbean, hence the name; "The Black Patti".
Her repertoire included grand opera, light opera, and popular music.
The first African-American to sing at the Music Hall in New York (Carnegie Hall), she sang for four consecutive presidents and Dvořák even wrote a solo part for her.
Indeed, Jones met with international success amongst some circles but found that access to most American classical concert halls was limited by racism.
In 1896 she formed the Black Patti Troubadours, a musical and acrobatic act made up of 40 jugglers, comedians, dancers and a chorus of 40 trained singers. The revue provided Jones with a comfortable income. Several members of the troupe, such as Bert Williams, went on to become famous.
Jones retired from performing in 1915 to care for her mother but was forced to sell most of her property to survive. She died penniless on June 24, 1933.
Operetta grew out of the French 'Opéra Comique' around the middle of the 19th century
- short, light works rather than the full-length, increasingly serious Opéra
"Comique" meant something closer to humanistic / realistic
Tragedy and comedy next to each other, as Shakespeare had done centuries earlier...
- portraying "real life" in a more realistic way.
The first Book Musical - US 1866
Book by Charles M. Barras (1826-1873)
The term "Vaudeville" was populised in France in the 17th century (ref: poem or song).
The earliest vaudeville was the "Vau de Vire", a Norman song of the 15th century.
The Comédie en vaudeville was a theatrical entertainment which began in Paris towards the end of the 17th century, in which comedy was enlivened though lyrics using the melody of popular vaudeville songs. Opera felt the influence of this genre.
"Since he ceased musical activity 10 years before the first jazz recording was made it seems the man credited as inventing Jazz never made it onto record...

Born in New Orleans in 1877, Bolden is said to have worked as a barber but was leading his own band at dances and parties in the city by the age of 18. Photographs show that by 1905 the lineup of his ensemble – cornet, trombone, two clarinets, guitar and double bass – approximated the classic instrumentation of later traditional jazz bands.

Louis Armstrong, who heard him at first hand, remarked many years later that Miles Davis's plaintive tone reminded him of Bolden.

Once committed to the state mental institution, he [Bolden] never re-emerged. He died in 1931 and was buried in a pauper's grave".

Ragtime Pianist, Bandleader and Composer
Exact birth date:
reputed to be around 1885-1890

Born into a Creole community in downtown New Orleans, Louisiana Jelly Roll is widely recognized as an innovator and pivotal figure in early jazz, he wrote dozens of songs, including "Wolverine Blues", "Doctor Jazz Stomp", "Red Hot Pepper" and "Mint Julep".
Cecil Sharp and the Morris Men
Cecil James Sharp, a 40-year-old music teacher from London, was gazing out across the snow-covered drive at his mother-in-law's cottage in Headington, Oxfordshire when he saw a bizarre sight. Eight men dressed all in white, their shirts decorated with ribbons and bells strapped to their shins, were lining up in front of the house. A concertina player struck up a tune and the men leapt into the air to perform a dance – Laudanum Bunches.
The profound long-term consequences of this strange, chance meeting between Cecil Sharp and the Headington Quarry Morris Men have resonated through English folk ever since. It triggered in Sharp a passion for folklore which, with dogged dedication, he was to pursue and champion for the rest of his life; a life that saw him hailed as the founding father – or perhaps more accurately, godfather – of modern folk music.
The railroad train brought with it faster transportation for fleeing slaves, and adapted the lyric. "Chariot” became ”train”, etc... The Gospel Train quickly became code for the Underground Railroad. When slaves heard this song being sung, they knew that either a conductor was among them, or that fleeing slaves were close by, along with an opportunity to escape.
Train songs, however, were easier to interpret by outsiders than the traditional spirituals with their biblical references.
Sissieretta sang in some of the world’s great concert halls and public venues such as Covent Garden in London, Madison Square Garden in New York, the National Conservatory of Music under the baton of the famous classical composer Antonin Dvorak, and at the White House for President Benjamin Harrison. She is said to be the first African-American woman to sing at Carnegie Hall.
Preacher's daughter, musically educated from early childhood. Performing around Rhode Island, Massachusetts and Boston1875 when, aged 14, she wed her bellman husband-business-manager.
Age 19, NYC, continued studies and began concertizing to glowing critical reviews, many compared her voice to then famous Italian opera star Adelina Patti.
Dreamt of singing on the operatic stage.
1889. Divorces estranged husband. New management team persuade her to form a theatrical troupe of African-Americans performing comedy and classical singing, which she begrudgingly agreed to call the “Black Patti Troubadours”.
19 years success then retired and lived in poverty til death 1933
National Conservatory of Music of America
Literary Celebrities...

1787 - 1851
Invention of Photography
First permanent photograph:
1826 France
1819 - 1901 Queen Victoria
The tunes and the beats of USA before 1865

Highly influenced by the music of actual cultural environment, styles continuously changing...

Gospel SHOUTS emerged...
After regular a worship service, congregations used to stay for a “ring shout”. It was a survival of primitive African dance. So called 'educated' ministers and members placed a ban on this activity where the men and women arranged themselves in a ring. The music started, perhaps with a Spiritual, and the ring began to move, at first slowly, then with quickening pace. The same musical phrase was repeated over and over for hours. This produced an ecstatic state. Women screamed and fell. Men, exhausted, dropped out of the ring.
Patent of Steam Engines 1769
1830s - Train Songs
1920s - Blues Singers &'Race Records'
1890s - 1910 RAGTIME
1920s - 1940s Pin Ups...
Louis Armstrong
Ella Fitzgerald
Billie Holiday
Anita O'Day
1943 Sinatra signs to Columbia
1935–1946 Swing / Big Band era
arrested in 1938 on charges of adultery and seduction
Victorian Burlesque
UK & New York Theatre - mid 19th century
Harry Belafonte Signed
1890s Scott Joplin
A 1906 recording of American composer Scott Joplin's Maple Leaf Rag (1899) was played by the United States Marine Band. This is one of the earliest known recordings of this work by Joplin (according to a discography of 78rpm recordings of Joplin works compiled by David A Jasen in "Scott Joplin - Collected Piano Works" 1981).
1940s Bebop - Dizzy Gillespie, Charlie Parker
1959; Kind of Blue. Columbia
1920 - 1933 Prohibition in U.S.A.
1950s Free Improv, Jazz + ROCK 'N' ROLL
1912 - 1948
1877 Phonograph - Edison
1940s - 1950s
July 1955. Chess Records.
Berry's first single release = his first hit.
Rolling Stone magazine wrote;
"Rock & roll guitar starts here."
1947 Aristocrat records release;
Muddy Waters "Gypsy Woman"
1917 First Jazz Record
RCA Victor Release
Sold massively
Launched a global jazz craze
OKeH Records 1920
First recording of vocal blues by an African-American; Mamie Smith's 'Crazy Blues' sold million+ copies in less than a year, uncovering a previously unimagined market for "race" records.
4Decades of Hot Jazz success, an Airport & the US Open stadium
1954 UK No1"Lets Have Another Party
1st piano instrumental @ No1. 1st African American female @No1
Winifred Atwell. Decca Records.
30,000 discs a week by mid 1950s. Biggest selling pianist of her time by far.
1964 - 74
'63-'65 Motown is the mainstream
1932 1st Electric Guitar
On October 12th 1944 – Frank Sinatra opened his third season at New
York’s Paramount theatre. He was greeted by a huge crowd of fans,
mostly teenaged girls, When they refused to leave after the first show,
the frustrated crowd outside waiting to catch the next show went berserk, sparking what became known at the “Columbus Day Riot “. It took 200 police along and 421 reserves to control the rampage
1942 Harlem Hit Parade Billboard chart
1949 - 1963
US Billboard removes
Rhythm & Blues chart
1934 - America's first singing Cowboy!
1934 to 1953, Autry appeared in 93 films and 91 episodes of The Gene Autry Show television series. During the 1930s and 1940s, he personified the straight-shooting hero—honest, brave, and true. His singing cowboy movies were the first vehicle to carry country music to a national audience.
In total he released 635 recordings, including ‘Frosty the Snowman’, ‘Rudolf the Red Nose Reindeer’ and the first ever gold record. Three decades of fame across all audio & audio/visual media platforms. Owner of TV & radio stations and major league baseball team…
1936 - '37 Robert Johnson reordings
Elvis Presley
Biggest selling solo artist of the 20th Century.
1953: "stick to truck driving 'cause you're never going to make it as a singer"
1954: He began working with Sun Records (launched Jerry Lee Lewis, Roy Orbison & Johnny Cash) owner Sam Phillips, who wanted to get black music recorded for a white audience.
Presley was the most important popularizer of rockabilly, an uptempo, backbeat-driven fusion of country and rhythm and blues.
Contract sold to RCA Victor Records for $35,000 in 1955. Presley's first RCA single "Heartbreak Hotel", released 1956 = number-one hit. He became the leading figure of the newly popular sound of rock and roll with a series of network television appearances (but only from the waist up) and chart-topping records. His energized interpretations of songs, many from African American sources, and his uninhibited performance style made him enormously popular—and controversial. In 1956 he made his film debut in Love Me Tender.
1953 Rock Around The Clock -
Bill Haley and the Comets = Arrival of a cultural shift
Britain's first rock n roll star Tommy Steele
1956 Buddy Holly signs to Decca
1962 - "Love Me Do" No1 . Rolling Stones form
Lennon & McCartney
form the Quarrymen
Skiffle group 1956

1967 Sgt Pepper
1966 - '68 Cream
1969 'Space Oddity' - Bowie
Billy Ward - Child Musical Prodigy
Broadway vocal coach - vocal quintet
The Dominoes
No1 - R&B chart 1951 for 30 weeks
"6o minute man"
Crossed the boundaries between gospel / blues vocal
Lyrics pushed the limits of what was deemed acceptable
Appealed white and black audience.
Became a contender for the title of first Rock n Roll record
1961 Bob Dylan moves to New York
By 1955 Little Richard was blending funk with the rock and roll beat
Woodie Guthrie 1912 - '67
1940 'This Land is Your Land'
1929 Great Depression
1940 Pete Seeger & 'Back Where I Come From'
1914 - 1918
World War I
W. W. II.
1959 - 1975
Vietnam War
1910 - '30 Great Migration
1.6 million migrants leave rural areas for northern and midwestern industrial cities
The primary push factors for migration were segregation, the widespread violence of lynching, and lack of opportunities in the South. In the North, they could find better schools and adult men could vote (joined by women after 1920).
1928 Women's vote UK
The Andrews Sisters
- Topping charts
- 1938 - 1950
1925 - 1935 The Boswell Sisters
Marlene Dietrich
1920s - 70s
Warhol 1928 - '87
Some of the most expensive paintings ever sold.
($100 million for a 1963 canvas Eight Elvises).
Credited as popularizing screen printing and lithography - identified as serigraphy; US
'Mass-produce images to mirror capitalist corporations mass producing consumer goods'
Silver Factor (original Factory). 5th floor, 231 East 47th Street Midtown Manhattan 1962 - 68. Silver paint, tin foil, fractured mirrors, balloons, amphetamines and free love.
Adult film performers, drag queens, socialites, drug addicts, musicians, free-thinkers ('workers' / 'superstars'). Meeting place for musicians; Bob Dylan, Lou Reed, Mick Jagger, et al... Even Salvidor Dali
Comments on mainstream America, disregarding commonly accepted social views.
Theaters showing his films were sometimes raided and the staff arrested for obscenity.
Colaboration with The Velvet Underground in 1965. (and Nico).
1926 Varese debuts
compositional work
1933 Ionisation EMS label
1968 Led Zeppelin form
'66 - Pink Floyd form
1970 - Queen Form
1954 James Brown Embarks
Vicki Anderson 1965-71
Marsha Hunt: 'Walk on Guilded Splinters'
By Toni Visconti, with Marc Bolan
Track Records 1969 release
Isle of Wight Music Festival 1969
1966 Jimi Hendrix moves to London
1962 Madeline Bell settles in UK...

Introduction -- What Is A Record Producer?
(Edited Excerpt from Tony Visconti, Bowie, Bolan and the Brooklyn Boy)

The role of a record producer hasn’t changed much since Fred Gaisberg instructed opera singers to move closer or further from a horn whilst singing, as he cut their performances to wax cylinders in the 1890s. His was the voice of experience, helping the artists of his day to get their performances to a high standard onto the recording medium.

In the 60s, it was Phil Spector who brought this role to the public’s attention, but most records of that time were still produced anonymously. It was many years after the event when the great Quincy Jones admitted to arranging and producing the 1963 hit “It’s My Party” by Lesley Gore.

When I heard a Beatles records produced by George Martin I began to understand that record production was an art form, not just an aural mirror of a live performance. Before the intricate Beatles recordings it was just that, a live performance captured on cylinder, disk or tape. It is said that once Bing Crosby, the legendary crooner, discovered that two performances could be edited together by cutting audio tape with a razor blade, he gave birth the “art” of record production.
1961 - 'Georgia On My Mind', Ray Charles US No.1
1963 Dusty Springfield launches solo career
1967 Monterery International Pop Festival
Beginning in 1958 as schoolgirls in Passaic, New Jersey, The Shirelles quickly became rock & roll's first female supergroup and were the inspirations for a legion of female groups that followed. The Shirelles are the original "Dream Girls" and have earned their exalted place in modern musical history
Classmate Mary Jane Greenberg convinced them meet her mother, Florence, the owner of Tiara Records. They released their first song, "I Met Him on a Sunday"; after local success, it was licensed to Decca Records for national broadcast and charted at #50. The song was influenced by doo-wop, but infused with pop melodies. Tiara Records, along with The Shirelles' contract, was sold to Decca Records in 1959 for $4000.
Scepter Records is a record company founded in 1959 by Florence Greenberg. She had just sold Tiara Records with The Shirelles for $4000 to Decca Records. When The Shirelles didn't produce any hits for Decca, they were given back to Greenberg,
1960; US No.1, UK No.2:
'Will You Still Love Me Tomorrow'
- Scepter Records
Kennedy years:
1961 - 1963
Jazz Emerges...
High Art"
Popular Education
Political Democracy
"Nat King Cole made television history in 1956, when he became the first African-American performer to host a variety TV series. The Nat King Cole Show featured many of the leading performers of the day, including Count Basie, Peggy Lee, Sammy Davis Jr. and Tony Bennett. Unfortunately, the series didn't last long, going off the air in December 1957. Cole blamed the show's demise on the lack of a national sponsor. The sponsorship problem has been seen as a reflection of the racial issues of the times with no company seemingly wanting to back a program that featured African-American entertainers."
1930s -
Jazz Standards
Gertrude "Ma Rainey" Pridgett (April 26, 1886 – December 22, 1939)[1] was one of the earliest known American professional blues singers and one of the first generation of such singers to record.[2] She was billed as The Mother of the Blues.
She began performing at the age of 12 or 14, and recorded under the name Ma Rainey after she and Will Rainey were married in 1904. They toured with F.S. Wolcott’s Rabbit Foot Minstrels and later formed their own group called Rainey and Rainey, Assassinators of the Blues. From the time of her first recording in 1923 to five years later, Ma Rainey made over 100 recordings
Scott Joplin (c. 1867/1868? – April 1, 1917) was an African-American composer and pianist. Joplin achieved fame for his ragtime compositions, and was later titled "The King of Ragtime". During his brief career, he wrote 44 original ragtime pieces, one ragtime ballet, and two operas. One of his first pieces, the "Maple Leaf Rag", became ragtime's first and most influential hit, and has been recognized as the archetypal rag.

Joplin was born into a musical family of laborers in Northeast Texas, and developed his musical knowledge with the help of local teachers, most notably Julius Weiss. Joplin grew up in Texarkana, where he formed a vocal quartet, and taught mandolin and guitar. During the late 1880s he left his job as a laborer with the railroad, and travelled around the American South as an itinerant musician. He went to Chicago for the World's Fair of 1893, which played a major part in making ragtime a national craze by 1897.
Tin Pan Alley is the name given to the collection of New York City music publishers and songwriters who dominated the popular music of the United States in the late 19th century and early 20th century.
The start of Tin Pan Alley is usually dated to about 1885, when a number of music publishers set up shop in the same district of Manhattan. The end of Tin Pan Alley is less clear cut. Some date it to the start of the Great Depression in the 1930s when the phonograph and radio supplanted sheet music as the driving force of American popular music, while others consider Tin Pan Alley to have continued into the 1950s when earlier styles of American popular music were upstaged by the rise of rock & roll.
In the mid-19th century, copyright control on melodies was not as strict in the United States, and competing publishers would often print their own versions of the songs popular at the time.

With stronger copyright protection laws late in the century, songwriters, composers, lyricists, and publishers started working together for their mutual financial benefit.

The biggest music houses established themselves in New York City. Small local publishers (often connected with commercial printers or music stores) continued to flourish throughout the country, and there were important regional music publishing centers in Chicago, New Orleans, St. Louis, and Boston. When a tune became a significant local hit, rights to it were usually purchased from the local publisher by one of the big New York firms.

Aspiring songwriters came to demonstrate tunes they hoped to sell. When tunes were purchased from unknowns with no previous hits, the name of someone with the firm was often added as co-composer (in order to keep a higher percentage of royalties within the firm), or all rights to the song were purchased outright for a flat fee (including rights to put someone else's name on the sheet music as the composer). Songwriters who became established producers of successful songs were hired to be on the staff of the music houses. The most successful of them, like Harry Von Tilzer and Irving Berlin, founded their own publishing firms.

"Song pluggers" were pianists and singers who made their living demonstrating songs to promote sales of sheet music. Most music stores had song pluggers on staff. Other pluggers were employed by the publishers to travel and familiarize the public with their new publications. Among the ranks of song pluggers were George Gershwin and Harry Warren.

When vaudeville performers played New York City, they would often visit various Tin Pan Alley firms to find new songs for their acts. Second- and third-rate performers often paid for rights to use a new song, while famous stars were given free copies of publisher's new numbers or were paid to perform them, the publishers knowing this was valuable advertising.

Initially Tin Pan Alley specialized in melodramatic ballads and comic novelty songs, but it embraced the newly popular styles of the cakewalk and ragtime music. Later on jazz and blues were incorporated, although less completely, as Tin Pan Alley was oriented towards producing songs that amateur singers or small town bands could perform from printed music. Tin Pan Alley manufactured jazzy and bluesy pop-songs and dance numbers. Much of the public in the late 1910 and the 1920s did not know the difference between these commercial products and authentic jazz and blues
Ragtime (alternatively spelled rag-time or rag time)is a musical genre that enjoyed its peak popularity between 1895 and 1918. Its main characteristic trait is its syncopated, or "ragged," rhythm. It began as dance music in the red-light districts of African American communities in St. Louis and New Orleans years before being published as popular sheet music for piano. Ernest Hogan was an innovator and key pioneer who helped develop the musical genre, and is credited with coining the term ragtime.

Ragtime was also a modification of the march made popular by John Philip Sousa, with additional polyrhythms coming from African music
"Jelly Roll Blues" - First published jazz composition; 1915
1891 to 1895. Dvořák. From The New World
John Philip Sousa (1854 – 1932) was an American composer and conductor of the late Romantic era, known primarily for American military and patriotic marches. He also composed Operetta...
1907 - 1936
The Ziegfeld Follies were a series of elaborate theatrical productions on Broadway in New York City from 1907 through 1931. They became a radio program in 1932 and 1936 as The Ziegfeld Follies of the Air.

The Follies were lavish revues, something between later Broadway shows and a more elaborate high class Vaudeville variety show. Many of the top entertainers of the era (including W.C. Fields, Eddie Cantor, Josephine Baker, Fanny Brice, Ann Pennington, Bert Williams, Bob Hope, Will Rogers, Ruth Etting, Ray Bolger, Helen Morgan, Louise Brooks, Marilyn Miller, Ed Wynn, Gilda Gray, Nora Bayes, Sophie Tucker, and others) appeared in the shows. The Ziegfeld Follies were also famous for many beautiful chorus girls commonly known as Ziegfeld girls, usually wearing elaborate costumes by designers such as Erté, Lady Duff Gordon or Ben Ali Haggin.
Richard Tauber (16 May 1891 – 8 January 1948) was an Austrian tenor acclaimed as one of the greatest singers of the 20th century. Some critics commented that "his heart felt every word he sang."

He made his public debut at a concert at Freiburg on 17 May 1912. In 1912 his father was appointed Intendant of the Municipal Theatre in Chemnitz and was therefore in a position to arrange for Richard to appear as Tamino in The Magic Flute on 2 March 1913.

Following some guest appearances at the Wiener Volksoper in 1920, he made his Vienna State Opera debut on 16 June in La Boheme, substituting for an indisposed Alfred Piccaver. In 1922, Tauber signed a five-year contract with the Vienna State Opera and appearances with the Berlin State Opera followed; for many years he appeared with both companies – four months with each, leaving four months for concerts and guest appearances with other companies and touring abroad.

Tauber first performed in an operetta by Franz Lehár at the Volksbuhne in Berlin in 1920. This excursion into operetta was looked down on by some, but it did Tauber no harm at all; in fact, it gave Tauber a new audience.

In the mid-1930s, he made several musical films in England. Despite receiving lucrative offers from the USA, he remained in the UK for the entire war. There was no opera staged in wartime Britain so he made a living by singing, conducting and making gramophone records and radio broadcasts. He even composed English operettas, together with the lyric writer Fred S. Tysh, from one of which, Old Chelsea, the song My Heart and I became one of his most popular English recordings.
German record company Odeon pioneered the "album" in 1909 when it released the "Nutcracker Suite" by Tchaikovsky on 4 double-sided discs in a specially-designed package.
1909 First Record Release
Released 1966
Edgar Varèse; (1883 – 1965) was an innovative French-born composer who spent the greater part of his career in the United States.

Varèse's music emphasizes timbre and rhythm. He was the inventor of the term "organized sound", a phrase meaning that certain timbres and rhythms can be grouped together, sublimating into a whole new definition of music.

Edgar Varèse challenged traditional conceptions of noise and instead found ways to transform noise into music; Varèse believed that noise was simply "any sound one doesn't like", and he perceived music as a mere organized collection of noises, with composers being responsible for organizing noises in a pleasing way for the listener.
Stravinsky 1882 - 1971
He was born Ernest Reuben Crowders, in the Shake Rag District of Bowling Green, Kentucky, in 1865. As a teenager, he traveled with a minstrel troupe called the Georgia Graduate, where he performed as a dancer, musician, and comedian. During this time he changed his name to Hogan because "Irish performers were in vogue."

It was also during this time that Hogan created a comedy dance called the "pasmala", which consisted of a walk forward with three steps back. In 1895, he wrote and published a song based on this dance called "La Pas Ma La". The song's chorus was:
Hand upon yo' head, let your mind roll back,
Back, back back and look at the stars
Stand up rightly, dance it brightly
That's the Pas Ma La.

Hogan followed this song with the massive hit "All Coons Look Alike to Me". Hogan was evidently not the originator of the song's lyrics, having appropriated them after hearing a pianist in a Chicago salon playing a song titled "All Pimps Look Alike to Me". Hogan merely changed the words slightly, substituting the word "coon" for "pimp" and added a cakewalk syncopation to the music, which he had heard being played in back rooms and cafes. The song eventually sold over a million copies. The success of this song created many imitations, which became known as "coon songs" because of their use of extremely racist and stereotypical images of blacks. In Hogan's later years he evidently felt shame and a sense of "race betrayal" for the song.

The controversy over the song has, to some degree, caused Hogan to be overlooked as one of the originators of ragtime, which has been called the first truly American musical genre. Hogan's songs were among the first published ragtime songs and the first to use the term "rag" in their sheet music copy. While Hogan made no claims to having exclusively created ragtime, fellow Black musician Tom Fletcher said Hogan was the "first to put on paper the kind of rhythm that was being played by non-reading musicians."

As Hogan said shortly before he died,
(That) song caused a lot of trouble in and out of show business, but it was also good for show business because at the time money was short in all walks of life. With the publication of that song, a new musical rhythm was given to the people. Its popularity grew and it sold like wildfire... That one song opened the way for a lot of colored and white songwriters. Finding the rhythm so great, they stuck to it ... and now you get hit songs without the word 'coon.' Ragtime was the rhythm played in backrooms and cafes and such places. The ragtime players were the boys who played just by ear their own creations of music which would have been lost to the world if I had not put it on paper."

Music Hall
Variety TV
Variety shows were a staple of anglophone television from its early days into the 1970s, and lasted into the 1980s. In several parts of the world, variety TV remains popular and widespread.

Most of the early top performers on British television and radio did an apprenticeship either in stage variety, or during World War II in Entertainments National Service Association (ENSA). In the UK, the ultimate accolade for a variety artist for decades was to be asked to do the annual Royal Command Performance at the London Palladium theatre, in front of the monarch.

In the United States, former vaudeville performers such as the Marx Brothers, George Burns and Gracie Allen, W. C. Fields, and Jack Benny honed their skills in the Borscht Belt before moving to talkies, to radio shows, and then to television shows, including variety shows. In the 1960s, even a popular rock band such as The Beatles undertook this ritual of appearing on variety shows on TV. In the United States

From 1948 to 1971, The Ed Sullivan Show was one of CBS's most popular television series. Using his no-nonsense approach, Ed Sullivan allowed many acts from several different mediums to get their "fifteen minutes of fame". Sullivan was also partially responsible for bringing Elvis Presley and The Beatles to prominence in the United States.

1948 Ed Sullivan Television Show Airs; US
Romantic Classical Music 1815–1910
'Light' Orchestral Works
c. 1770 - 1850 European Romanticism
An artistic, literary, and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850. Partly a reaction to the Industrial Revolution, it was also a revolt against the aristocratic social and political norms of the Age of Enlightenment and a reaction against the scientific rationalization of nature.
The Second Industrial Revolution, also known as the Technological Revolution, was a phase of the larger Industrial Revolution corresponding to the latter half of the 19th century until World War I. It is considered to have begun around the time of the introduction of Bessemer steel in the 1860s and culminated in early factory electrification, mass production and the production line.
c. 1760 - 1840
Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840. This transition included going from hand production methods to machines, new chemical manufacturing and iron production processes, improved efficiency of water power, the increasing use of steam power and the development of machine tools. It also included the change from wood and other bio-fuels to coal. It began in Great Britain and within a few decades had spread to Western Europe and the United States.

The Industrial Revolution marks a major turning point in history; almost every aspect of daily life was influenced in some way. In particular, average income and population began to exhibit unprecedented sustained growth. In the words of Nobel Prize winner Robert E. Lucas, Jr., "For the first time in history, the living standards of the masses of ordinary people have begun to undergo sustained growth ... Nothing remotely like this economic behavior is mentioned by the classical economists, even as a theoretical possibility."
1954 Winifred Atwell No.1
Sister Rosetta Tharpe (March 20, 1915 – October 9, 1973) was an American singer, songwriter, guitarist and recording artist. A pioneer of twentieth-century music, Tharpe attained great popularity in the 1930s and 1940s with her gospel recordings that were a unique mixture of spiritual lyrics and rhythmic/early rock accompaniment. She became gospel music's first crossover artist and its first great recording star, referred to later as "the original soul sister".[3][4][5] She was an early influence on figures such as Little Richard, Johnny Cash, Elvis Presley and Jerry Lee Lewis.[6]

Willing to cross the line between sacred and secular by performing her music of "light" in the "darkness" of the nightclubs and concert halls with big bands behind her, Tharpe pushed spiritual music into the mainstream and helped pioneer the rise of pop–gospel beginning with her 1939 hit "This Train."
Charles Manson Convicted 1971
1956 Love Me Tender
August 28 1963
Ilse of Wight Festival
The Avant Guarde
Cultural Diffusion...
In the U.K. Skiffle, R&B and Rock 'n' Roll fused, when John Lennon met Paul McCartney in 1956...
The structuralist mode of reasoning stresses that elements of culture must be understood in terms of their relationship to larger, overarching systems or structures.
Philosopher Simon Blackburn surmises in the Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy 2004, that “structuralism is "the belief that phenomena of human life are not intelligible except through their interrelations. These relations constitute a structure, and behind local variations in the surface phenomena there are constant laws of abstract culture".
The era of modernity is characterised socially by industrialisation and the division of labour and philosophically by "the loss of certainty, and the realization that certainty can never be established, once and for all" (Delanty 2007). With new social and philosophical conditions arose fundamental new challenges. Various 19th century intellectuals, from Auguste Comte to Karl Marx to Sigmund Freud, attempted to offer scientific and/or political ideologies in the wake of secularism.
For Marx, what was the basis of modernity was the emergence of capitalism and the revolutionary bourgeoisie, which led to an unprecedented expansion of productive forces and to the creation of the world market.
"Marx and Engels associated the emergence of modern society above all with the development of capitalism; for Durkheim it was connected in particular with industrialization and the new social division of labour which this brought about; for Weber it had to do with the emergence of a distinctive way of thinking, the rational calculation which he associated with the Protestant Ethic (more or less what Marx and Engels speak of in terms of those 'icy waves of egotistical calculation')."

— John Harriss The Second Great Transformation? Capitalism at the End of the Twentieth Century 1992
The ‘culture and civilization’ tradition
Bourgeoisie expansion of productive forces leads to the creation of the world market.


Skiffle is a music genre with jazz, blues, folk and American folk influences, usually using homemade or improvised instruments. Originating as a term in the United States in the first half of the 20th century, it became popular again in the UK in the 1950s, where it was associated with artists such as Lonnie Donegan, The Vipers Skiffle Group, Ken Colyer and Chas McDevitt. Skiffle played a major part in beginning the careers of later eminent jazz, pop, blues, folk and rock musicians and has been seen as a critical stepping stone to the second British folk revival, blues boom and British Invasion of the US popular music scene.
Southern US based label founded by production duo Antonio "LA" Reid and Kenneth "Babyface" Edmonds.
An Arista Records imprint, LaFace scored hits throughout the 90s with a diverse stable of artists including Outkast, Toni Braxton and P!nk.
By the end of the decade Babyface was less involved with the label while still pursuing his own musical career. "LA" Reid took over from Clive Davis as head of Arista, and most of the LaFace artists went with him (though some went to Davis' new J Records). This seemingly marked the end of LaFace, but it seems LaFace is reborn as one quarter of the newly rearranged Zomba Label Group alongside So So Def, Verity and Jive.

LaFace Records' most prominant release to date was the 1994 TLC album "CrazySexyCool" which was the highest selling album by any all-female group.
Debut release: Pebbles 'Giving You The Benefit remix'
Pebbles signed to MCA (Universal) 1987...

Debut Profile release 1981...
Andre Harrell was the first half of the hip hop duo Dr. Jeckyll & Mr. Hyde. Harrell grew up in Bronx, New York. When he was a teenager, Harrell and Quadie Campbell, his high school friend, formed a rap/ hip-hop duo named Dr. Jekyll (Harrell) and Mr. Hyde (Brown). The group achieved success with three major hit songs "Genius Rap," "Fast Life," and "AM/PM." Despite this early success in the music industry, Harrell had other career intentions and he continued to pursue his study by attending Lehman College in Bronx. There he majored in communications and business management, as he wanted to become a newscaster. After three years, he dropped out of college and went to work for a local radio station.

In 1983, Harrell met Russell Simmons, the founder of Rush Communications. He came to work for Rush and within his two years became vice-president and general manager. After a few years working at Rush, Harrell left Rush Management and founded Uptown Records, where he was responsible for discovering and hiring Sean "Puffy" Combs. Harrell met with Mary J Blige and in 1989, she was signed to the label.

In 1988, he was offered a label deal MCA Music Entertainment Group, and after multiple successful releases, in 1992, MCA offered Harrell a multimedia deal, which involved film and television productions. Uptown Records was subsequently renamed to Uptown Entertainment, and its records were featured in productions for Universal Pictures and Universal Television. In 1995, Harrell was appointed CEO of Motown Records

Profile was one of the earliest hip-hop labels which also released disco, dance, and electro records. The label was founded in New York City in 1981 by Steve Plotnicki and Cory Robbins. Over the years Profile acquired many smaller record labels under their Profile Associated Labels umbrella imprint. Releases on Profile Associated usually occur in a label's later releases and catalog numbers on these releases start with PAL.

Cory Robbins left the label in 1995 and founded Robbins Entertainment. Steve Plotnicki remained with the label until he decided to sell it in 1997. After a fierce bidding war between Tommy Boy Music and BMG's Arista Records, the latter won, and what was in print at the time was reissued with new BMG catalog numbers. Some new product was released since then, but it was eventually shut down by its new parent and its artists became Arista artists but were eventually dropped by the label anyway. The entire catalog, save for Run-D.M.C., is now out-of-print.
New York hip-hop label founded in 1983 by Russell Simmons and Rick Rubin. It has since gone on to become the most well-known hip-hop labels in the world, along the way making stars of the likes of Public Enemy, L.L. Cool J, The Beastie Boys, Redman, and DMX.

1984: Label founded; releases several 12" singles independently. First release was purchased by Streetwise Records and released with a Def Jam logo (and is not considered part of Def Jam today).
1985: Def Jam Recordings began distribution through Columbia/CBS Records.
1988: CBS Records was purchased by the Sony Corporation.
1991: CBS Records became Sony Music Entertainment.
1994: PolyGram purchased 50% of Sony’s Def Jam holdings and switches distribution companies.
1996: PolyGram purchased an additional 10% of the Def Jam holdings, which made it the parent company.
1999: Universal Music Group was formed through the merger of the MCA and PolyGram families of labels and it subsequently purchased the remaining Def Jam holdings that Sony held. All the Def Jam assets were then spun into Island Def Jam Music Group after merging it with Mercury's pop roster and Island Records.
Russell Simmons is an American Hip Hop producer & businessman. He and Rick Rubin founded the pioneering Hip Hop label Def Jam Recordings. He also created the clothing fashion lines Phat Farm, Argyleculture, and American Classics. His younger brother is Joseph Simmons (Run of Run-DMC).
Born 1963, Rick Rubin is one of the most infamous producers of modern music and has been responsible for the birth of 2 labels: Def Jam Recordings, with Russell Simmons in 1984 and Def American Recordings in 1988 (later changed to American Recordings). He has produced some of the "heaviest" tunes if not sonically (Slayer, Public Enemy) then emotionally (Johnny Cash, Mars Volta).
One of the most successful female pop-rap groups of all time, Salt'N'Pepa formed in the mid-'80s when Cheryl "Salt" James and Jamaican-born Sandy "Pepa" Denton met while working at Sears in New York City. Another co-worker Hurby Luv Bug, was studying record production at the Center of Media Arts, and asked Cheryl and Sandy to record for him as a class project. An answer record to Doug E. Fresh And The Get Fresh Crew's "The Show", titled "The Showstopper," was released as a single in late 1985 on Pop Art Records and reached No. 46 on the Billboard R&B chart. After signing to Next Plateau Records, adopting the stage name Salt'N'Pepa, and recruiting a female high-school student-DJ named "Spinderella", the duo released Hot, Cool, and Vicious in 1986, written and produced by Azor. The album languished until DJs began playing "Push It" in 1987, sending it to No. 19 and "pushing" the record to platinum sales, a breakthrough for the female rap-trio...
Next Plateau Records formed in 1984 as an independent label, its initial focus was on the emerging New York Latino dance and hip hop music scene. As the 1980s evolved, the company earned substantial funds for a fully independent label, thanks heavily in part to the success of Salt N Pepa, its biggest-selling act to date. As the early 1990s emerged, Next Plateau began having its records distributed by PolyGram. In 1992, PolyGram bought Next Plateau, and shifted it to operate in conjunction with its FFRR and London Records labels. After PolyGram was merged into Universal Music Group in 1998.
Ruthless Records was founded by rapper Eazy-E (supposedly with money he made as a drug dealer) and manager Jerry Heller. It was the home of gangsta rap pioneers N.W.A., whose records were distributed through Priority Records, (a label who released the first ever compilation album in the 1960s)..
N.W.A [ Arabian Prince, DJ Yella, Dr. Dre, Ice Cube, MC Ren & Eazy-E..] released their debut album "Straight Outta Compton" in 1988. It sold poorly until early 1989, when MTV and radio began playing the hits "Straight Outta Compton," "Gangsta Gangsta" and "Express Yourself," which resulted in the album being sold in over three million copies.

Ice Cube left in December 1989 over royalty disputes -- having written almost half of the lyrics on "Straight Outta Compton" himself, he felt he was not getting a fair share of the money and profits. He wasted little time putting together his solo debut, 1990's "AmeriKKKa's Most Wanted," but he avoided mentioning his former label mates. Instead of breaking up, N.W.A. decided to continue without Ice Cube, releasing the EP "100 Miles and Runnin'," which went platinum. Their 1991 follow-up album "Efil4zaggin" (also referred to as "Niggaz4Life") was the first hip-hop full-length album to reach number one on the Billboard 200. Shortly after the release of "Efil4zaggin," N.W.A. disbanded. All members continued making music since then, with Dr. Dre going solo and Eazy-E running Ruthless Records and releasing more music until he died of AIDS in 1995.
West-coast Hip-Hop label founded by Marion "Suge" Knight and Dr. Dre, which had its most successful years in the 90s with artists like Snoop Dogg, 2Pac and Dr. Dre.

Death Row was auctioned and sold to GMG (Global Music Group) in June 2008 for $24 Million.
Since early 2009 Death Row Records is owned by the WIDEawake Entertainment Group.

Dr. Dre and The D.O.C. wanted to leave both N.W.A. and their label, Ruthless Records, run by Eazy-E, another member of N.W.A. According to N.W.A's manager Jerry Heller, Marion ‘Suge’ Knight and his henchmen threatened Heller and Eazy-E with lead pipes and baseball bats to make them release Dre, The D.O.C., and Michel'le from their contracts. Ultimately, Dre and DOC co-founded Death Row Records in 1991 with Knight, who vowed to make it "the Motown of the '90s".

Initially, Knight (sometime NFL player, concert promoter & former bodyguard to Bobby Brown) fulfilled his ambitions: he secured a distribution deal with Interscope, and Dre's 1992 solo debut, The Chronic, went onto triple platinum status by the end of 1993.[6] It also made a career for Dre's protégé, Snoop Dogg, whose own debut album Doggystyle obtained a quadruple platinum certification in 1994.

Knight's feud with East Coast impresario Sean Combs (known as Puff Daddy at the time) progressed when Knight insulted the Bad Boy label founder on air at the Source Awards in August 1995. Openly critical of Combs's tendency of ad-libbing on his artists' songs and dancing in their videos, Knight announced to the audience, "Anyone out there who wanna be a recording artist and wanna stay a star, but don't have to worry about the executive producer trying to be all in the videos, all on the records, dancing, come to Death Row."

The same year, Knight offered to post a bail ($1.4 million) for Tupac Shakur if the troubled rapper agreed to sign with Death Row. Shakur agreed, setting the stage for his 1996 double album All Eyez on Me and the songs "California Love" and "How Do U Want It".

Sean "Puffy" Combs founded Bad Boy Entertainment in 1991, and began working with Clive Davis and Arista (BMG) in 1993. The two companies formed Bad Boy Records as a 50/50 joint venture.

In 2002 Combs acquired Arista's 50% of their Bad Boy Records joint venture and walks with its complete roster and catalog. Diddy celebrated a new distribution partnership with Universal by releasing an overview of his label, Bad Boy's 10th Anniversary...The Hits, in March of 2004. Universal acquired a 50% stake in Bad Boy Entertainment for $30 million in Feb. 2005.

In 2006, Bad Boy worked out a deal with Warner Music Group, which now owns about a 50% share of the label; it's currently distributed by Atlantic Records.
Debut single release on Uptown in 1993
Notorious 'Christopher George Letore Wallace' B.I.G. (Business Instead of Game) was born and raised in Brooklyn, NY on May 21, 1972. During his life he moved many crowds with his conversational style in Hip Hop. He released two studio albums both garnering critical and public acclaim: 'Ready To Die' and 'Life After Death'. Notorious B.I.G. was shot to death from a drive-by in Los Angeles, CA on March 9, 1997.

As a youth he was an honor-roll student, but dropped out of school at the age of 17 and began working for a small-time crack cocaine dealer in Virginia. As a teen he would freestyle rap on the streets of Brooklyn. After making a demo tape with neighborhood friends and connections, this demo was eventually received DJ Mister Cee (from Big Daddy Kane). From there he got notice in Hip-Hop magazine, The Source, in the Unsigned Hype section. Sean "Puffy" Combs got a hold of the demo tape and after meeting signed Biggie to Uptown Records. Puffy eventually started his own music label, Bad Boy Records, bringing Biggie with him. Soon after Bad Boy's premiere he released the album, Ready To Die, eventually selling over 4 million copies. To this day B.I.G. is regarded as one of the best lyricist ever in Hip-Hop along with his one time friend and eventual adversary, Tupac Shakur.
Missy Elliott & Timbaland's first recording credit released by Uptown in 1993
Hip-hop producer Tim "Timbaland" Mosely began honing his craft at age 19 under the tutelage of Jodeci soundman DeVante Swing. Eventually he hooked up with Missy Elliott, Playa, Ginuwine and Magoo, forming the hip-hop production crew, Da Basement.
Founded in 1989 by Chris Schwartz and Philadelphia hip-hop engineer and producer Joe "The Butcher" Nicolo as a joint venture with Columbia Records. Early releases were marketed by Enigma Records (3). Artists included Cypress Hill, Kriss Kross, The Fugees and Lauryn Hill.
Fugees debut released 1993
"Tommy Boy is a US label that was established in 1981 by Tom Silverman when the entrepreneurial trade mag publisher began releasing the best of the demos crossing his path. He struck gold with the label's revolutionary debut, Afrika Bambaataa & The Soul Sonic Force's Planet Rock. One of the only 12" singles ever to sell 600,000+ copies, it laid the foundation for the genre-defining house that Tommy built. Tommy Boy and its stable of stars led the way as the first wave of hip-hop's artistic translation of urban street culture became a mass-appeal phenomenon. With repeated high-charting crossover success, Tommy Boy earned almost 80 gold and platinum citations, and the label's groundbreaking grooves are essential pillars of hip-hop". (Discogs)
DJ Hollywood
Kurtis Blow on TV
1987 Paid In Full
"The spread of cultural trends across locations. Beliefs, practices and ideas get shared from person to person and sometimes even around the world through this diffusion, as with viral videos"
(Study.com. N.d.).
"A trend can spread outwards from its original location".
"Relocation diffusion occurs further to relocation when a person migrates".
Nina Simone's musical style arose from a fusion of gospel and pop songs with classical music, in particular with influences from her first inspiration, Johann Sebastian Bach and accompanied with her expressive jazz-like singing in her characteristic contralto. She injected as much of her classical background into her music as possible to give it more depth and quality, as she felt that pop music was inferior to classical.

Simone aspired to be a concert pianist but was denied opportunities in the classical world, ( such as a scholarship to the prestigious Curtis Institute of Music in Philadelphia), due to her race.

By 1956...
Stimulus diffusion is when culture spreads but is adapted by those adopting it, (study.com).

"Relocation diffusion occurs further to relocation when a person migrates".
Stimulus diffusion is when culture spreads but is adapted by those adopting it, (study.com).
The software a producer chooses and, indeed, what software is available for them to use, is affected by cultural diffusion, in a commercial sense.

The hardware a producer chooses and, indeed, what hardware is available for them to use, is affected by cultural diffusion, in a commercial sense.

Consumption shapes decisions about design, innovation, investment, salvage and reuse, on both an individual and a commercial scale, (i.e. on micro and macro societal levels).
Cultural diffusion.
What has this aspiring producer been googling and teaching himself about?
Production methods influence history of technology (use, manufacture and distribution).
Industrial practice influences industrial practice.
Cultural decisions, about which cultural artifacts to circulate, enable people to define themselves, their ideological allegiances and thus to form cultural groups in society, (i.e. 'urban tribes' made up of people with shared opinions, (worldview) and behaviours (lifestyle)).
Public consensus, concerning cultural artifacts, ideas or icons, can galvanize a social movement and, therefore, aid social change, (i.e. change in the social order).
Music influences music.
What is a joint venture?
A joint venture is a partnership with another business that can give you access to new resources, markets and distribution channels.

Entering into a joint venture is a major decision. This guide gives an overview of the main ways you can set up a joint venture, the advantages and disadvantages of doing so, how to assess if you are ready to commit and what to look for in a joint venture partner.

[From the business gateway website]
A joint venture is a contractual business undertaking between two or more parties. It is similar to a business partnership, with one key difference: a partnership generally involves an ongoing, long-term business relationship, whereas a joint venture is based on a single business transaction. Individuals or companies choose to enter joint ventures in order to share strengths, minimize risks, and increase competitive advantages in the marketplace. Joint ventures can be distinct business units (a new business entity may be created for the joint venture) or collaborations between businesses. In a collaboration, for example, a high-technology firm may contract with a manufacturer to bring its idea for a product to market; the former provides the know-how, the latter the means.

All joint ventures are initiated by the parties' entering a contract or an agreement that specifies their mutual responsibilities and goals. The contract is crucial for avoiding trouble later; the parties must be specific about the intent of their joint venture as well as aware of its limitations. All joint ventures also involve certain rights and duties. The parties have a mutual right to control the enterprise, a right to share in the profits, and a duty to share in any losses incurred. Each joint venturer has a fiduciary responsibility, owes a standard of care to the other members, and has the duty to act in Good Faith in matters that concern the common interest or the enterprise. A fiduciary responsibility is a duty to act for someone else's benefit while subordinating one's personal interests to those of the other person. A joint venture can terminate at a time specified in the contract, upon the accomplishment of its purpose, upon the death of an active member, or if a court decides that serious disagreements between the members make its continuation impractical.

[ Legal Dictionary info.. ]
Why is it better to be a label than a producer?
Lee & Thompson LLP Guide To Music Industry Agreements PDF
Financial breakdown of a commercial release
Lee & Thompson LLP Guide To Music Industry Agreements PDF
Full transcript