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Minerals

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Arshdeep & Shadman

on 21 November 2012

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Transcript of Minerals

THANK YOU!
By Arshdeep & Shadman

photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli Minerals By: Arshdeep and Shadman Sulfides •Made up of sulphur (S) and other minerals (usually metal)
•Include the worlds’ most important minerals
•Cinnabar (mercury ore), galena (lead ore), sphalerite (zince ore), and chalcopyrite (copper ore) Which we make table salt
Chemical formula: •NaCl
Characteristics:
Forms perfect cubic crystals
Clear
Types of Halite:Orange halite: partially dissolved halite
Blue halite: the color change can be produced by bacteria, or radiation
Hopper halite: this halite forms hopper*-shaped crystals (* hopper = funnel shaped container) since the edges of the crystal face grow faster than the center Silicates
Silicates are metals combined with silicon and oxygen Introduction A mineral is a naturally occurring Earth material that is not formed from animal or plant material. Types of Sulphides •Dense, brittle, look like metal (galena pyrite)
•Some are clear, light, and shiny (orpiment, realgar)
•Sulfosalts (sulphur + metalloid) (arsenic, bismuth, or antimony) Composition: Sulphur and lead (PbS)
Characteristic: •Shiny, metallic grey, perfect cube crystals
•Natural semi-conductor
Applications of Pb: •Pipes, roofs, cups, paint pidments
•Shields against x-rays
•Electric battery
•Metal alloys (combination of metals)
•Stained glass windows Cinnabar Composition: •Mercury and sulphur (about 85% or more!)
Characteristics: •Bright, brick-red crimson
Applications of Hg: •Paint pigment (vermillion (color))
•Hg thermometer Pyrite (Fool’s Gold): Composition: •Iron and sulphur (FeS2)
Characteristics: •Shiny metallic gold color (often mistaken for gold!)
Applications: •A favorite among rock collectors Sulfates •Sulfates (metal + sulphate) (SO4)
•200 different kinds
•Gypsum (most common)
•Most are rare and occur only in a few places Formation and Characteristics: Formation of sulphate minerals: - when sulfates are exposed to the air
- as deposits left by hot volcanic water (hydrothermal fluids)
Characteristics of sulphate minerals: - all sulfates are soft and paler
- most have transparent to translucent crystals Gypsum •soft
•sidementary rock-forming mineral
•beds where saline (salty) water from has evaporated
•differenct varieties (each with its own name)
Chemical formula: •CaSO4.2H2O Forms of Gypsum Desert Rose: •Hot deserts
•Evaporates from salty basins
•Grows around grains of sand to form flower-like clusters of flat, bladed crystals. Daisy Gypsum •Small pockets of moisture
•Radiating overlapping patterns of crystals Gypsum Satin Spar •Clear or silky white, threadlike crystals
•Jewellery and ornaments Halides Chemical formula: •CaF2
Characteristics: •Octahedral crystals
Comes in variety of colors
•Colorless
•Intense purple to green (depending on impurities)
•Glows in the dark (ultra violet light)
•Usually monochromatic (can make colored bands) Fluorite Carbonates •Carbonate + metals or metalloids•Soft•Dissolve easily in acidic substances•Form when minerals on Earth are altered by the acidity of the air and acid rain. Calcite Chemical formula: •CaCO3 (calcium carbonate)Characteristics: •Common mineral (4% of earth’s crust)•Major component in the igneous rock called carbonatite (up to 99% calcite)•Found in hydrothermal veins•Extraordinary diversity•300 different crystals•Thousands of different crystal variations Malachite Chemical Formula: •Cu2CO3(OH)2 (copper carbonate hydroxide)Characteristics: •Light and dark green bands•Semi-precious mineral Rhodochrosite Chemical Formula: •MnCO3 (manganese carbonate)Characteristics: •Rose-colored•Semi-precious gemstone (soft for everyday use)•Formed inside the bubbles of volcanic veins•Containing silver, lead, and copper•Unique concentric (circular) bands •Term “oxide” used to describe minerals that are composed of:oA metal with an oxygen (metal oxide)oA metal with a hydroxide group (OH)•Common, dull ores (bauxite)•Rare gems (rubies, sapphires) Rutile Characteristics:•Titanium oxide •Most common source of titanium•2x as strong as steel and 3x as lightApplications:•Missiles and aircrafts•Main ingredient for white paint Cassiterite Characteristic: •Tin ore
•Found in veins of igneous and sedimentary rock
•1st mixed with copper to make bronze 8000 years ago
•Resulted in naming the era “The Bronze Age”
Uses: •Tools
•Weapons Uraninite Characteristic: •Uranium oxide•Highly radioactive•Used to generate nuclear energy•Needs 100,000 tons of mined uraninite to produce the 28 tons of uranium every year Magnetite Characteristics: •Iron oxide•Natural magnet Ruby Characteristics: •Red•Variety of corundum•Second hardest mineral•Traces of chromium (gives red color)•Best shade is called “pigeon blood”•Star rubies contain 3 or 6 point stars inside the stone•Effect is called asterism Sapphire Characteristic: •Blue•Variety of corundum•Traces of iron and titanium (gives blue color)Applications: •Faces of fine watches•Extremely durable•Scratch resistant Phosphates and Others •Small•Less common•Secondary mineralsCharacteristics: • Soft•Brittle•Colourful•When combined with other minerals, often have vivid colors (greenish-blue or lime green) Turquoise Chemical Formula: •CuAl6(PO4)4(OH)8.4H2O (hydrated copper aluminum phosphate)Characteristics: •Turquoise color (range from greenish blue to sky blue)•Mined since 6000 BC (ancient Egyptians) Apatite Characteristics: •Three different minerals depending on the predominance of eitheroFluorine (fluorapatite)oChlorine (chlorapatite)
oHydroxyl group (hydroxylapatite)Chemical Formula: •Ca5(PO4)3(F,Cl,OH)Characteristics: •Green, yellow, blue, reddish brown and purple•Transparent to translucent Cont's Others •8 mineral classes
•Other types of minerals that do not fall in any of those classes Other Mineral Groups •Nitrates•Borates •Iodates•Organic minerals Iodates and Organics Iodates: •Iodine and oxygenOrganic minerals: •Found in living things•Pearl (oraganically produced corbonate)•Amber (fossil tree sap)•Jet (very compact coal) Oxide A mineral meets the following criteria:
1. A naturally occurring substance
2. Solid and stable at room temperature
3. Represented by a chemical formula
4. Usually abiogenic
5. Has an ordered atomic structure Three main mineral types are:
Native elements: Metals
pure form: gold, silver, copper, lead, and platinum
ores: iron, aluminum, tin
Native elements: Non-metals
pure form: sulfur, graphite, and diamond
other non-metals are found in combination of minerals
Composite minerals
compounds of elements when 1 or more metals combine with a non-metal Minerals form when the elements in a gas or liquid crystallize into a solid. A common classification system groups all minerals into 8 basic classes, based on their chemical composition:
1.Silicates
2.Native Elements
3.Oxides
4.Halides
5.Sulfides
6.Sulfates
7.Carbonates
8.Other There are more than 1000 different silicate minerals split into 2 types:
Felsic silicates
“fel”= feldpar and “sic” = silicon
Mafic silicates
“ma”= magnesium and “fic” = ferric (iron) Felsic is further divided into 3 subcatagories:
Potassium Feldspars
Micas
Quartz Silicates that are not Felsic are Mafic.
Mafic silicates are silicate minerals that contain magnesium (“ma”) and iron-ferric(“fic”)

Examples include:
Olivine
Pyroxene
Plagioclase felolspars Feldspar is NOT a single mineral. It is a group of minerals related to each other in structure and chemical composition a name for three very closely related minerals:
Orthoclase
Sanidine
Microcline Micas form thin colorless and brittle flakes
Some micas are extremely clear, and resistant to weathering.
Micas are also heat-resistant and are still used in oil oil stoves and lamps
Quartz provides much of the raw material for clastic sedimentary rock, such as santone and shaleAlthough pure quartz is colorless impurities give it a range of colours and forms. Felsic Feldspar Potassium Feldspars Micas Quartz Native Elements Most minerals are compounds, occurring in combinations of chemical elements. In contrast, native minerals naturally occur by themselves. Native elements can be divided into the following subcategories:
Metals - E.g.: Silver, Gold, Iron, Copper, Nickel, Platinum, Mercury
Metalloids - E.g.: Arsenic, Bismuth, Anitimony
Non-metals - E.g.: Sulfur, Carbon A common classification system groups all minerals into 8 basic classes, based on their chemical composition:
1.Silicates
2.Native Elements
3.Oxides
4.Halides
5.Sulfides
6.Sulfates
7.Carbonates
8.Other Color: red
Tarnish Color:
Bright green
-> Grows in branching dendritic crystals Color: metallic yellow
Tarnish Color: none!
Formation:
1. Hydrothermal veins in rock
2. Deposits in river beds
Characteristics: botryoidal (=grapelike) clusters
Pure Arsenic: poisonous!
Applications:
(with other metals)
Electronic transistors
Wood preservatives
Metalloid
Characteristics: expands when solidified
Location:
volcanic veins
Applications:
soldering Copper Gold Arsenic Bismuth Mafic
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