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End of the Cold War (1984-1991)

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Candace Addleman

on 27 December 2013

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Transcript of End of the Cold War (1984-1991)

Social and Cultural Impact
End of the Cold War (1984-1991)
What was the role of the U.S. and U.S.S.R?
External/ Internal Forces
How and why did the Cold War end?
end of detente
collapse of U.S.S.R
crumble of communism
rise of new leaders
non-communist leaders throughout Eastern Europe
change in domestic and foreign policies
United States
USSR
Eastern/Central Europe
USSR
People Movements
Eastern Europe
China
USSR
Social, Economic, and Political Factors
USSR
United States
China
Eastern Europe
United States
USSR
China
Eastern Europe
Reagan
Gorbachev
Foreign policies
United States
U.S.S.R
Germany
Berlin Wall tear down November 1989
Tiananmen Square (1989)
student protest
in response to Xiaoping firing General Yaobang
Yaobang supported glasnost
sent military in: high death toll
Xiaoping shaken due to Gorbachev's example
Gorbachev's 3 Domestic Reforms
Perestrokia: Economic Restructuring
decreased defense spending
"vodka reform" decrease alcoholism in the workforce
reduce centralized control of economy
create limited private enterprise
Glasnost: Political Openness
freedom of expresssion
less censorship
legal rights increased
tolerated protests and demostrations
Demokratizatsiia: Political Reforms
mandated secret ballot
multiple candidate elections
government officials terms now 10 yr max
Resistance in Soviet Nations/Seeking Independence
Poland
Romania
Lithuania
Gorbachev's "New Thinking" Policy
stopped exporting revolutions and counterrevolutions
INF Treaty 1988
destruction of 2,800 US and USSR missiles
START Treaty 1991
cut 30 percent of long range nuclear weapons
previously banned plays, films, books were legal: Boris Pasternak's Doctor Zhivago
writers were able to criticize without punishment
new historical interpretations that criticized Stalin and Brezhnev were published
old history books contained heavily censored information, therefore history examinations for primary and secondary school were canceled
legal rights extended
jammed foreign radio now unjammed: Radio Liberty
strikes now tolerated
Economic:
Czechoslovakia
Charter 77: reminded gov. of 1975 Helsinki Agreement on Human Rights
gov. persecuted members of 77
Poland
Solidarity: strike committee/ workers union led by Lech Walesa
1989 recognized by gov. & minority rep. in new parliament
won all seats in Sejm and 99/100 in Senate
new coalition government; first non-communist gov't in post war Eastern Europe (Aug. 24, 1989)
KOR and Catholic Church support most of Solidarity
Hungary

resurgence of support for Imre Nagy
opposition to current government
Romania
government took Tiananmen Square approach on protest, unsuccessful
economic reconstruction failed to make needed changes
Poland
political:

Solidarity became part of government
Jaruzelski (prime minister) supported glasnost
economic:
1987 econ. verge of collapse, caused political reform
social:
Solidarity support = widespread
Eastern Bloc economies unable to keep up with West technological advances
not strong enough to support itself, let alone Eastern Europe
Political:
glastnost, peristroika, demokratizatsiia
Yeltsin = Gorbachev's opposition, extreme reforms
aggressive actions contributed to collapse of U.S.S.R.
willing to work with/supportive of Gorbachev
Internal:
External:
- Glasnost, policy that promoted transparency in government
- Perestroika, 1986, policy that offered better political and economical reconstruction and had a shift towards capitalism
- 1987, signs INF treaty that reduces nuclear productions with US
- 1989, allows free elections and opponents to run against USSR communist party
1985 Gorbachev comes to power
gave up power for betterment of his people
uprisings/revolts aimed at governments to fix economic issues
Internal
External
Moscow/Gorbachev allows citizens to protest their governments without threat of intervention
Reagan Doctrine
Announced 1985
- Provided overt and covert aid to countries in Latin America, Asia and Africa against communism
1978-1994, China's income triples becoming the third largest in the world
Deng moved towards a more capitalist approach, away from communism, similar to Gorbachev's perestroika
Deng refuses to undergo a change in politics and keeps it closed and private
Tiananmen, 1989, demonstration for democracy revealed citizens unsatisfactory feelings towards their government and wanted a more democratic country
Socially the US constantly opposed communism and wanted to see it come to an end
The controversy in economics in US was its' capitalist system which strongly opposed the communist Soviet Union
Politics was the main issue in which the US was a Democracy and was completely against the communist party
- Patriotism grew with the many anti-communist propaganda
- House of Un-American Activities Committee was established in Hollywood to suspend suspected communist
- Americans were content with the end of the Cold War and the dismantle of the communist party
Anticommunist feelings remained and american exceptionalism grew with an american victory
- struggled to accept Cold War was over

For the most part the chinese people were not doing so well. Though their economy flourished because of the shift to capitalism, the chinese population was not satisfied. They longed for a democratic government but the Chinese government under Deng did not allow it. Protest began to increase and the government responded to many of them like they did in Tiananmen Square in 1989. Protest by students would continue but the government would not change and would continue to apply it's Marshall Law.
1985 Reagan and Gorbachev summits:
Geneva
Reyjavik
Washington
Bush
Malta Summit: Bush and Gorbachev agreed to unify Germany democratically
Collapse of communism
collapse of communism
no uprisings in/directed at Moscow, however riots in Eastern Europe affected the Soviet Union internally and externally
Poland
industrial advances
agriculture lagged
women more prominent presence in work force
more opportunities for higher education
1940-1989
arts heavily subsidized by the state and subject to harsh political censorship
after fall of communism more artistic freedom
Czechoslovakia
under communist regime art galleries were supported by the state to everyone could go
art forms released had to conform to political and ideological dictates
Works Cited
Cannon, Martin, Richard Jones-Nerzic, and David Keys. 20th Century World History: Course
Companion ; IB Diploma Programme. Oxford: Oxford Univ., 2009. Print.
"Countries and Their Cultures." Countries and Their Cultures. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Dec. 2013.
Gaddis, John Lewis. The Cold War: A New History. New York: Penguin, 2005. Print.
Goff, Richard D. The Twentieth Century: A Brief Global History. Boston: McGraw-Hill, 2001.
Print.
Walker, Martin. The Cold War: A History. New York: H. Holt, 1995. Print.
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