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The English Renaissance - Manning

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Ms. Manning

on 2 October 2014

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Transcript of The English Renaissance - Manning

Beginnings of Tudor Rule
The transition from the medieval period to the modern period took place during the reign of the Tudors. When the Tudor line eventually ended in 1603, many modern institutions had replaced medieval ones.
Henry Tudor was a Welsh nobleman who seized the throne after the long struggle known as the Wars of the Roses.
Henry Tudor
A Flourish of Genius
The Renaissance era in Europe and in England was marked by a change in the way people thought about themselves and the world.
No longer content with the fixed religious beliefs of the Middle Ages, people became more interested in expanding their knowledge of history, art, science, and especially the classic texts of ancient Greece and Rome.

The Roman Catholic Church was challenged on a number of fronts. By the end of the sixteenth century, the Church had lost its position as the supreme and political power in Europe.
The Protestant Reformation
Henry VIII, who reigned from 1509 to 1547, is perhaps most famous for his SIX wives.
The fates of these women are summarized in a jingle:
Divorced, beheaded, died,
Divorced, beheaded, survived.
Like his father, Henry VIII khat a male heir was essential to securing the throne. His first wife, Catherine of Aragon, failed to give him a son after twenty-four years of marraige (She had a daughter, Mary Tudor). He divorced her (after firing the archbishop and getting a new one who would give him his way) and
declared HIMSELF head of the English Church
Henry VIII
Afterward he seized the vast and wealthy resources of the Catholic Church in England, and filled his treasury with the profit he made from selling off Church land.
Henry's decision to overthrow the Catholic Church in England was widely supported, his claim to religious authority however, were not
(He beheaded one of his best friends for opposing his claim).
Henry VIII
After Henry's marriage to Catherine was declared invalid, he married Anne Boleyn, who bore a daughter, Elizabeth.
Henry had Anne beheaded because she did not give him sons, and then married Jane Seymour, his third wife. She died giving birth to Henry's son Edward. All three of Henry's children had different mothers. He would marry two more times after.
Henry did leave a legacy in England. He created a Royal Navy, helped England spread its political power, language, and literature all over the globe.
He was a true Renaissance man--a poet, musician, athlete, hunter, and supporter of learning.
He died without knowing that Elizabeth, the child he ignored because she was female, would become England's greatest ruler.
England's Greatest Monarch
1485 - 1660
English IV

To strengthen his position and place the Tudor line on a secure foundation, Henry married Elizabeth of York, daughter of Edward IV, and dealt swiftly with pretenders who claimed right to the throne.
Henry did everything he could to guarantee Tudor law throughout the country.
By the time Henry died, England had changed considerably. The land was prosperous, the people were moderately united, and the throne was protected.
The new King, Henry VIII, would mostly battle with the Church for authority and worry about producing an heir for England.


Queen Elizabeth I
Elizabeth I -- possibly the most brilliant monarch in English history -- inherited the kingdom only after her younger half brother, Edward VI (9-15), died of tuberculosis, and their older half sister, "Bloody" Mary died of fever (She ruled for five years.)
Mary was Catholic and got the nickname "Bloody" Mary because she executed hundreds of Protestants during her rule.
When Mary died, Elizabeth's first task was to restore law and order to a kingdom torn by feirce religious fueds.

Queen Elizabeth I
Elizabeth reestablished the Church of England and refused to acknowledge the pope's authority.
Because Elizabeth knew taking a husband would put her under male authority, she eluded marraige for her entire reign despite much external pressure. She remained "
The Virgin Queen
," from which the American colony Virgina got its name.
Elizabeth foiled several plots against her life. Some of which were engineered by her cousin Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots, also a direct decedent of Henry VII.
Mary, Queen of Scots
Mary Stuart, who was Catholic
was dethroned in Protestant Scotland and lived under house arrest as a royal exile in England. Because Elizabeth was childless, Mary
had a claim on the English crown
. When, at the pressure of her advisors,
Elizabeth had Mary beheaded in 1588, Philip of Spain
--irritated by Elizabeth's refusal to marry him as much as by the execution of a Catholic ally--
found reason to invade England.

The Spanish Armada
Phillip of Spain subsequently sent a Spanish Armada, a fleet of warships, to conquer England. Elizabeth's own Armada, with the help of some storms in the Irish Sea, destroyed the Spanish in the fight.
Without this victory, Spain may well have conquered Britain and later occupied North America (In other words, we would be Spanish were it not for Elizabeth...).
In 1603, Elizabeth was succeeded by James VI of Scotland, her second cousin and the son of Mary Stuart.

Queen Elizabeth I
While Elizabeth's rule was marked with turmoil and death, with Catholics and Protestants struggling for control of the country, she alone ushered in a golden age of prosperity and peace.
Renaissance and Reformation
Two major movements influence the thought and literature of this period: the Renaissance and Reformation.
The Renaissance, meaning "rebirth," was characterized by innovations in art, science, and exploration, and rediscovery of long-neglected classical works.
The German theologian Martin Luther, however, initiated the movement known as the Reformation, which led to the founding of Protestantism.
Luther stressed the Bible, rather than the pope, as the source of authority and importance of faith for salvation.

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