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Evidence and Values
Transcript of Evidence and Values
What is Criticism?
Support and Spheres
Opinion or Expert Testimony
Tests of Argument
Evidence and values
The Academic division of Rhetoric
Looking at texts in certain ways to see HOW they function
individual cases that prove the claim
These are a collection of many examples
What makes a source expert?
Are there issues of Bias?
You should always look for ways to test the proof of arguments
Deploying technical vocabulary to analyze artifacts around us
Presenting that information through synthesis of description, interpretation, and evaluation
Different Types of Rhetorical Criticism
Is the data consistent with other data from unrelated sources?
There is more to support than evidence
Needs and Values
Positive vs. Negative
Stated vs. Implied
Terminal vs. Instrumental
1. Review rhetorical studies
2. Evidence 3. Values in argument
Values in Argumentation
Is the data consistent with other data from the same source?
Abstract vs. Concrete
“Equal Pay for Equal Work”
Stated value of Equality
Implied-”You should study more”Value of learning is not stated
Positive Values- the desirable
Freedom, liberty, self-respect
Negative Values-the undesirable-Stealing, distrust, falsity, inattention, indecision
Terminal Values-the ends
Security, equality, happiness, harmony, love, pleasure, salvation, wisdom
Instrumental Values- the meansAmbition, capability, helpfulness, self-control, politeness, independence, imagination, hard work
Abstract values are common- justice, truth, freedom
objects serve as values for a group-
Concrete values- the flag, the pope, the Star of David, the President
Support is Sphere Dependent
Consider the legal sphere-
Hearsay evidence is discounted,
Hearsay evidence rules the day
negative evidence is essential-
the absence of evidence ,
the Null hypothesis
1. Dictate value of certain
kinds of evidence
2. Determine the standards
for expert status
3. Allow or prohibit certain
values in argument
Do the data support the conclusion
they are meant to support?
Often used in arguments