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Mikrut/Thompson MPH520 Prezi

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Mark Thompson

on 1 October 2013

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Transcript of Mikrut/Thompson MPH520 Prezi

This potential resource is viewed as waste.

Usually there is not enough adjacent land to absorb all of the nutrients (Osterberg & Wallinga, 2004).
Large-scale growth of the meat and dairy industry is expected as livestock is predicted to become the largest portion of global agriculture by 2020 (Nicholson, Blake, Reid, & Schelhas, 2001).

This means more demand for CAFOs resulting in even more potentially hazardous animal waste requiring responsible and sustainable disposal.
By Shannon Mikrut and Mark Thompson
Some of these additives are present in the animal waste, manure and urine, and can have adverse environmental effects on soil and water, upon which neighboring communities depend.
Waste has to go somewhere...
Contaminants in Urine and Manure
CAFOs in close proximity to agriculture farms can contaminate growing plants through runoff or contaminated groundwater.
Soil Contamination and Degradation
-Animal agriculture causes serious land degradation, and nearly 20 percent of land considered degraded results from overgrazing, compaction, and erosion (UN, 2006).

-In areas considered drylands, poor public policy and poor management practices contribute to rapid desertification from animal agriculture (UN, 2006).
When spread, too much manure can overwhelm the soil and can even contribute to increased greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Large manure pits contribute to ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide and increased methane levels in the air (Maxwell, 2009).
Raising livestock has become one of
the most damaging factors contributing
to the earth’s increasingly scarce
water resources (UN, 2006).
Most importantly, contaminants from manure and runoff leaching into the water table can lead to contaminated drinking water – a serious health hazard for people living near CAFOs.
Government and Non-Government Agencies
Human Health Concerns
How widespread is animal agriculture?
Livestock fields cover nearly 50 percent of the land in the U.S. and 30 percent of the Earth’s surface. Research performed by the National Research Council (NRC), USDA, and other groups shows serious environmental problems can be found in many of these areas in America (Ervin, 1998).
Animal agriculture has developed into a serious public health threat in the past few decades. The dairy meat industries have produced and supported large scale CAFOs or concentrated animal feeding operations (Osterberg & Wallinga, 2004).
Animal Agriculture's
Environmental Impacts

CAFOs raise cattle, swine, and chickens in cramped conditions to maximize output. These conditions cause stress to the animals, so they are fed additives, such as growth hormones and antibiotics to keep them from becoming ill and to bring them to market weight more quickly (Maxwell, 2009). Watch the video below to learn more.
The abundance of manure and urine is considered waste and usually there is not enough adjacent land to absorb all of the nutrients (Osterberg & Wallinga, 2004).
The volume of manure waste produced from these operations is three times as much as waste produced by humans (Osterberg & Wallinga, 2004).

In fact, a 1200-pound cow produces the same amount of waste as 23 humans (“How Factory,” 2005).

This means that a CAFO of 10,000 head of cattle produces the same amount of waste as a community of 230,000 people (“How Factory,” 2005).
- growth hormones - antibiotics -chemicals used as additives to the manure or to clean equipment
-animal blood -excess nitrogen and phosphorus -resistant organisms, pathogens such as E. coli
- silage leachate from corn feed - copper sulfate used in foot baths for cows (Hribar, 2012).
With large-scale growth of the meat and dairy industries, it is predicted they will become the largest portion of global agriculture by 2020 (Nicholson, Blake, Reid, & Schelhas, 2001).

This means more demand for CAFOs, resulting in even more potentially hazardous animal waste, requiring responsible and sustainable disposal.
“Livestock production and marketing have been associated with forest conversion in the humid tropics, especially Latin America, with related impacts on biological diversity, soil erosion,” (Nicholson, Blake, Reid, & Schelhas, 2001).
Heavy metals such as zinc, copper, cadmium and selenium are often added to animal feed to aid in digestion and help prevent disease (“How Factory,” 2005). Only a small percentage of metals in animal feed can be absorbed by the animals, and the rest is excreted in manure (“How Factory,” 2005).
Many times manure is kept in pits or open air lagoons (to evaporate) before being spread on neighboring fields (Osterberg & Wallinga, 2004). The pits and lagoons are susceptible to leaks, overflow and breakage, which in turn contaminate groundwater.
Pathogens are also a human health risk. CAFO’s rearing cattle are shown to produce much higher concentrations of bacterial pathogens, like E. coli., than range-fed cows (“How Factory,” 2005).
Bacteria in manure can contaminate soil and water, and several cryptosporidium outbreaks have been traced to this type of agricultural pollution (“How Factory,” 2005).
Manure from pits is often spread as fertilizer onto fields nearby the CAFOs, thus increasing the threat of environmental and human health risks.
The Clean Water Act of 1972 has been largely effective in reducing pollution in the freshwaters of the United States, but these measures target mainly point source pollution (Brown & Froemke, 2012).
- The Clean Water Act does not currently control nonpoint sources (Brown & Froemke, 2012).
This pollution can destroy ecosystems!
Disposal of excess manure in bodies of water is a common practice among CAFOs. Large amounts of manure in water disrupt the oxygen levels within the surface water. Bacteria work to break down the nitrogen in the manure, which reduces dissolved oxygen (Maxwell, 2009).
The nutrients in manure, when carried to rivers and lakes, can stimulate algae growth in these water systems, which also alters natural habitats by reducing dissolved oxygen and sunlight in the water (Water Quality, 1995).
This pollution is almost irreversible, and other grazers may take in the contaminated soil while feeding (“How Factory,” 2005). Heavy metals in the soil from animal manure used as fertilizer can also deter plant growth, potentially leading to lower crop yields (“How Factory,” 2005).
This process has led to millions of fish dying by turning fresh water into anaerobic environments and impacting survival rates of many other aquatic species (Maxwell, 2009).
Spread manure or leachate from lagoons and pits risk ground contamination leading to increased levels of nitrogen, phosphorous, antibiotics, pesticides, arsenic, and ammonia in the soil
Wetlands “can intercept runoff and convert the nutrients it contains” before filtering water into waterways (Stoner and Devine, 2008). Restoring them can help alleviate the burden of pollutants.

“Beyond improving animal diets, proposed remedies to the multiple problems include soil conservation methods together with controlled livestock exclusion from sensitive areas; setting up biogas plant initiatives to recycle manure; improving efficiency of irrigation systems; and introducing full-cost pricing for water together with taxes to discourage large-scale livestock concentration close to cities” (UN, 2006).
Water Pollution
Water Contamination
Agriculture runoff was the greatest cause of polluted rivers and the second largest cause of impaired lakes in 2002 (Stoner & Devine, 2008).
Natural Resource Defence Council (NRDC)
•Fighting for the federal government to set higher standards and filing lawsuits
The States
The National Association of Local Boards of Health
•Responsible for assessment, policy development,& assurance
•Provided information and education
Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
•Environmental Health Service Branch
•National Center for Environmental Health
More Government and Non-Government Agencies
Department of Natural Resources (DNR)

World Health Organization (WHO)

Soil and Water Conservation Society
•Focuses on natural resource conservation, education, research, and advocacy around the United States
According to Ervin (1998), “Today, States report that the condition of two-thirds of water and three-fourths of
groundwater is good. But where there is still degradation, agriculture is cited as the primary cause.”
Support Sustainable Farming!
Buy locally and know where your food originates.

Refuse products from CAFOs!

Stay informed!
Effective land management and responsible grazing.
United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
•Responsible for regulating factory farms

•Involved in creating watershed management plans

•Under court order to set higher standards and regulations regarding pollution from animal wastes
(EPA, 2012)
•Have the ability to set their own regulations and water pollution standards
•New York has a State Soil and Water Conservation Committee and a State Department of Environmental Conservation and Agriculture and Markets
•Minnesota Soil and Water Conservation
(1995). Water Quality. Earth Explorer. Enteractive. Retrieved from http://elibrary.bigchalk.com.

Bhanoo, S. (2010). Tougher E.P.A. Action on Factory Farms. The New York Times http://green.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/05/28/tougher-e-p-a-action-on-factory-farms/

Brown, T., Froemke, P. (2012). Nationwide Assessment of Nonpoint Source Threats to Water Quality. Bioscience, (2), 136, Retrieved from http://elibrary.bigchalk.com.

Department of Environmental Conservation. (2013). Permits for Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs). Retrieved from: http://www.dec.ny.gov/permits/6285.html

Ervin, E., D. (1998). Shaping a smarter environmental policy for farming. Issues in Science and Technology, ({14}) 73(7), Retrieved from http://elibrary.bigchalk.com
References (cont.)
Food and Water Watch. (2012). Factory Farm Nation: How America Turned Its Livestock Farms into Factories. Retrieved from: http://www.factoryfarmmap.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/FactoryFarmNation-web.pdf

How Factory Farming Pollutes Water and Soil. (2005). Global Action Network, Retrieved February 9 2013 from http://www.gan.ca/lifestyle/vegetarian+guide/vegetarians+and+the+environment/how+factory+farming+pollutes+water+and+soil.en.html.

Hribar, C. (2010). Understanding Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations and Their Impact on Communities. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/ehs/Docs/Understanding_CAFOs_NALBOH.pdf

Maxwell, N. I. (2009). Understanding environmental health: How we live in the world. Sudbury, Massachusetts: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

Minnesota Association of Soil and Water Conservation Districts. (2012). What is MASWCD? Retrieved from: http://www.maswcd.org/What_Is_MASWCD/who_we_are.htm
References (cont.)
Missouri Department of Natural Resources. (2012). Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations. Retrieved from: http://www.dnr.mo.gov/env/wpp/cafo/

Natural Resource Defence Council. (2013). Pollution from Giant Livestock Farms Threatens Public Health. Retrieved from: http://www.nrdc.org/water/pollution/nspills.asp

Nicholson, C., Blake, R., Reid, R., Schelhas, J. (2001). Environmental impacts of livestock in the developing world. Environment, (2), 7, Retrieved from http://elibrary.bigchalk.com.

Olson-Sawyer, K. (2012). CAFO conviction: Court holds factory farm accountable for water pollution. Retrieved from: http://grist.org/factory-farms/cafo-conviction-court-holds-factory-farm-accountable-for-water-pollution/

Osterberg, D., Wallinga, D. (2004). Addressing Externalities From Swine Production to Reduce Public Health and Environmental Impacts. American Journal of Public Health, (10), 1703, Retrieved from http://elibrary.bigchalk.com.
References (cont.)
PennFuture. (2013). Responsible Farming Campaign. Retrieved from: http://www.pennfuture.org/content.aspx?SectionID=113&MenuID=

Rearing cattle produces more greenhouse gases than driving cars, UN report warns. (2006). UN News Center. Retrieved February 6, 2013 from http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?newsID=20772&CR1=warning.

Soil and Water Conservation Society. (2013). About SWCS. Retrieved from: http://www.swcs.org/en/about_swcs/

Stoner, N., Devine, J. (2008). Facing Up To Freshwater Pollution. American Prospect, (6), A8, Retrieved from http://elibrary.bigchalk.com.

United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2012). Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFO)- Final Rule. Retrieved from: http://cfpub.epa.gov/npdes/afo/cafofinalrule.cfm
References (cont.)
United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2012). Ground Water Rule (GWR). Retrieved from: http://water.epa.gov/lawsregs/rulesregs/sdwa/gwr/index.cfm

United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2010). Polluted Runoff (Nonpoint Source Pollution). Retrieved from: http://www.epa.gov/owow_keep/nps/whatis.html

World Health Organization. (2013). 5 Chemicals From Agriculture Activities. Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/cmp130704chap5.pdf
•Working to ban the use of antibiotics in healthy animals
•Safe food, safe families campaign
•Monitors and enforces existing regulations (PennFuture, 2013)
• Respiratory Issues
• Blue baby syndrome from increased nitrate levels in water
• Exposure to fecal matter, antigenic urinary proteins, pollen, animal dander, antibiotics and pesticides hydrogen sulfide exposure (Maxwell, 2009)
• Feelings of depression, fatigue, stress, and confusion when living near CAFOs (Maxwell, 2009)
• Antibiotic-resistant pathogens in meat
Animal agriculture has developed into a serious public health threat in the past few decades. The dairy and meat industries have produced and supported large scale CAFOs or concentrated animal feeding operations (Osterberg & Wallinga, 2004).
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