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COPS: Mission Mushroom

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by

Allysa V

on 13 January 2013

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Transcript of COPS: Mission Mushroom

Presented by Officers Barner, Brick, O'Connor, Vitch, and Whetstine MISSION MUSHROOM FUNGI Fungi are heterotrophs and major decomposers
Made up of parasites, pathogens, and saprobes (decomposers)
Generally multicellular eukaryotes, some can be single-celled
Feed using hyphae: long, branching filamentous structures that secrete digestive enzymes
Cell walls are made of chitin instead of cellulose, like in plants

Basal Groups:
Chytrids and Microsporidians

Phylums of Fungi:
Zygomycota, Ascomycota, Basidiomycota ZYGOMYCOTA Also known as zygote fungi
Produce thick-walled, sexual spores called zygospores (haploid)
Two hyphae (different mating strains) grow toward each other and fuse
Spores undergo meiosis in a spore capsule

Example: Rhizopus Stolonifer
(black bread mold) ASCOMYCOTA Also know as sac fungi
Produce sexual spores called ascospores (haploid) in sac-shaped cells called asci (two nuclei from two different mating strains)
Groups of asci form a fruiting body called an ascocarp
Cells go through meiosis and then mitosis
Includes edible morels, truffles, and yeast

Example: Microsporum
(athlete's foot) BASIDIOMYCOTA Also known as club fungi
Produce sexual spores called basidiospores (haploid) externally on basidia (club-shaped structures)
Through mitosis, new hyphae are produced and form a fruiting body called a basidiocarp

Example: Agaricus bisporus
(Button mushroom) POLICE ACADEMY DEBRIEFING DEUTEROMYCOTA Also known as imperfect fungi
Produce elusive spores, meaning they lack a known sexual phase
No sexual reproduction cycle has been observed
Since imperfect fungi is an outdated term, these fungi can actually be classified as sac fungi

Example: Enterocytozoon bieneusi
(Microsporidia) SPORES Fungi are prolific spore producers
Spores are small, dry, and can be easily dispersed through the air
Each spore that germinates can be the start of a hypha and mycelium (group of hyphae)
Spores can be sexual, asexual, or both
Two types of asexual spores: sporangiospores and conidia FUNGAL SYMBIONTS Many fungi are mutualistic symbionts, meaning that they depend on plants for survival and vice versa
The fungus takes some food from the plant, and the plant gets mineral ions from the fungus
There are two main types of symbionts:

-Lichen: a vegetative body where a fungus and one or more photosynthetic organisms live in mutual dependency

-Mycorrhizae: when fungi attach hyphae to young plant roots

There are also two kinds of mycorrhizae:

-Ectomycorrhizae: hyphae forms a dense net around living cells, but do not penetrate the cells

-Endomycorrhizae: fungal hyphae penetrates living cells (more common)
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