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Transcript of Mangrove Swamps
& Olga Romo Malaysia's largest mangrove forest, Matang Mangrove Forest Reserve Average Salinity 28.5 and 32 ppt
Salinity is mainly determined by local hydrology, where input of salt water comes from the periodic tides and fresh water comes from rivers, rainfall, groundwater, and runoff. High evapotranspiration (water loss through the soil and plant leaves) in the tropics and subtropics can increase salinity considerably, especially under environments with restricted water flow. Thus, salinity can fluctuate widely within mangrove forests, both over time and space. 16° to 21° C (60° to 70° F)
Mangroves are usually only found in tropical climates, as they need consistent warm conditions for development and survival. Temperature is generally regarded as the most important factor governing the distribution of mangroves. However, it appears that water temperature, rather than air temperature is most important, as mangrove swamps have developed in temperate areas, but only where a warm ocean current is found Animals
Ospreys (bird much like an eagle)
Crab eating macaques
Water monitors Plants
Grey mangrove Sundari tree Osprey Name: Barasingha or Swamp Deer
Size/Body length: 180 cm
Height: 119 - 124 cm
Weight: 170 - 289 kg
These medium-sized deer have particularly large antlers on the males which may grow up to one meter in length. They have a concentration of six to eight points near to the tips. Barasingha have a predominantly brown coat with yellowish undersides; males develop a reddish tinge in summer and juveniles are mottled with white.
Previously found throughout the drainage basins of the Indus, Ganges and Brahmaputra Rivers, the barasingha is today restricted to southern Nepal and northern India.
The global population of the barasingha has undergone a dramatic decline principally as a result of habitat loss. The mangroves in much of their range have been rapidly developed and drained for agriculture and industrial development. These deer are also seen as a threat to crops and may be persecuted as a result. Mangroves are found in 118 countries and territories in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world.
Africa-Kenya, Tanzania, and Madagascar
North/Central America- Florida, Puerto Rico, Costa Rica Asia- Phillipines, India, Vietnam,
Oceania- Papua New Guinea, Guam, Hawaii, Fiji, Solomon Islands, Marshall Islands, French Polynesia. Threats to the Mangroves Mangroves are being destroyed up to four times more quickly than other forests. Since 1980, the groves are being destroyed at a rate of ~0.7% per year across the globe, due to their valuable hardwood, shrimp farming, coastal construction, salt extraction, and the building of dams and bridges. Basically, aquaculture, agriculture, and urban land use are the mangroves’ greatest threats.